Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Is Genome Sequencing And How Can It Help Combat COVID-19 Pandemic

Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Is Genome Sequencing And How Can It Help Combat COVID-19 Pandemic

According to experts, coronavirus has a tendency to mutate as they multiply which can have harmful, beneficial or no effects and so it is important to keep a track of the genome sequencing in order to check its virulence
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Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Is Genome Sequencing And How Can It Help Combat COVID-19 PandemicScientists are scanning samples taken from #COVID19 infected people to look for mutations, through a process called genome sequencing. Experts explain why it is important in fighting the pandemic
Highlights
  • Genome sequencing is similar to fingerprinting the DNA code of an organism
  • Viruses can mutate as these multiply after infecting a person: Experts
  • By sequencing virus samples, researchers can look for prevalent strain

New Delhi: After over a year, SARS-CoV-2, the virus behind the COVID-19 pandemic continues to multiply, mutate and spread. Since the outbreak, researchers across the world have found multiple variants of coronavirus that differ from the one found in Wuhan, China in December 2019 which is considered to be the ‘original’ strain. In order to identify and know about the new strains that coronavirus mutates into, scientists are scanning samples from infected persons through a process called ‘genome sequencing’. While this method has been used for years to study organisms like virus, bacteria, plants, animal and humans, NDTV spoke to experts to understand how it can help in combating the COVID-19 pandemic.

Also Read: COVID-19 Vaccine FAQs Answered BY WHO’s Chief Scientist Dr Soumya Swaminathan

What Is Genome Sequencing And How Does It Work?

According to Dr Chandrakant Lahariya, epidemiologist and public health specialist based in Delhi, genome is the complete genetic material of an organism. It is like an instruction manual which contains information about the make-up of the organism, he said. While human genomes are made of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid), a virus genome can be made of either DNA or RNA (Ribonucleic acid). DNA and RNA provide genetic instructions for growth and functioning of organisms. Coronavirus is made of RNA. Genome sequencing is a technique that reads and interprets genetic information found within DNA or RNA, said Dr Preeti Kumar, Vice President- Public Health System Support at the Public Health Foundation of India (PHFI).

Dr. Kumar further explained that genome sequencing or Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) involves analysing the genetic code of an organism and is done with the help of powerful computers. While talking about the need for sequencing, she said,

As we know well that virus undergoes mutation, as they replicate. Mutation are tiny errors in the genetic code that occur during the duplication process. While some are harmless, others can bring about such changes in the virus that can make it more transmissible or deadly. So, it is important to keep a track of the genomic sequencing in order to check the virulence of the virus. As the number of differences between viral strains increase, it’s likely that the resulting viruses will also behave differently in terms of how fast it spreads, the kind of symptoms and the intensity of the disease it causes. The differences can be beneficial, harmful or inconsequential. Different variants can have different tendencies and may need new containment and treatment strategies.

Explaining the process of genome sequencing, Dr Rakesh Mishra, director of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research- Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CSIR- CCMB), Hyderabad said that after a sample in the form of the swab is tested positive through RT-PCR (Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) test, it can be sent to sequencing labs. He further said that researchers break open the virus’s cells, isolate the genetic material in the form of RNA from it, convert it into DNA and analyse it using technology. The RNA of SARS-CoV-2 contains almost 30,000 molecules with distinct physical and chemical properties. So, by looking at these molecules, scientists can determine the sequence of the genome for that virus. Then, they compare the final sequence with that of previous strains to check whether it is a new or an existing strain.

According to Dr Lahariya, genome sequencing help scientists find the exact location in the virus where a mutation has taken place. If the mutation happens in significant proteins of the virus like the spike proteins which helps it to infect the human cell, then the virus is likely to spread at a faster speed, he said.

Also Read: Most People Are Naturally Armed Against COVID-19, Study Finds

How Can Genome Sequencing Help Fight The Pandemic?

By analysing differences in the genetic code of viruses from different patients, scientists aim to identify the transmission of the virus in real-time and see if different strains are emerging and which strains are more dominating in a particular country or area, said Dr Lahariya. He further explained that the information on the genetic makeup of the virus can help build strategies for public health and clinical care as well as devising containment measures.

According to Dr Lahariya, genome sequencing is useful for identifying hotspots or superspreaders (individuals who transmit the infection to a larger number of people than expected). This information provides insights to the policymakers for planning targeted public health interventions.

An understanding of the viral genomic sequence can assist researchers in designing treatments and vaccines that target specific function of the virus and also helps in preparing for further changes in the virus as it mutates and evolves, said Dr Lahariya.

According to the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID), the open genome repository for viruses that cause influenza and COVID-19, there have been almost 5.25 lakh SARS-CoV-2 genomes sequence studies till February 12. Dr Lahariya said that while there is no set standard for optimal number of samples that should be sequenced, there is a need to ramp up sequencing in almost every country including India as much as possible. He said that currently, the United Kingdom has been leading the world’s sequencing which is roughly 5 per cent of the positive samples while India is doing way less than 1 per cent.

Also Read: Why Did South Africa Stop AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine Rollout, An Expert Explains

Genomic Surveillance for Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) In India

India started sequencing genomes of COVID-19 positive samples in the beginning of the pandemic itself. According to the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW), in order to further enhance the genome surveillance, the Government of India formed Indian SARS-CoV-2 Genomics Consortium (INSACOG) in December 2020 for centralised genome surveillance of the novel coronavirus in the country. Coordinated by Department of Biotechnology (DBT) along with MoHFW, Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), and Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), the consortium brings together 10 labs from around the country with a cumulative sequencing infrastructural capacity of more than 25,000 samples a month.

According to the Genome Evolution Analysis Resource for COVID-19 (GEAR-19), a dashboard built by CSIR- CCMB, India has submitted 5,898 genome sequences till date which is only 0.05 per cent of the total number of cases in the country. The INSACOG, according to Dr Mishra, aims to increase the sequencing to 5 per cent in the coming months. For this, it has asked the labs to ensure that genome sequences are coming from all parts of the country and samples from all the people arriving in India who test positive will be sent for genome sequencing to know about mutations.

The World Health Organsiation has urged countries to expand sequencing studies to address the unknown strains of coronavirus. It explained that coronavirus mutation first found in the United Kingdom had spread to over 50 countries while the one found in South Africa has spread in over 20 nations. Another strain, from Brazil, is being analysed and could impact immune response, WHO said. Dr Matshidiso Moeti, Regional Director for Africa, WHO said while addressing a press conference,

Even if the new variant is not more virulent, a virus that can spread more easily will put further strain on hospitals and health workers who are in many cases already overstretched. This is a stark reminder that the virus is relentless, that it still presents a manifest threat.

WHO asserted that more the virus spreads, higher are chances of mutations and new strains to come up, so it is important to vaccinate a critical mass of people to break the chain of transmission at soon as possible and till then it is essential to follow preventive measures like social distancing, hand hygiene, wearing masks and taking the vaccine to avoid infections.

Also Read: India’s Sero-Survey Findings: One In Five Indians Exposed To COVID-19, AIIMS Director Randeep Guleria Explains What It Means

NDTV – Dettol Banega Swasth India campaign is an extension of the five-year-old Banega Swachh India initiative helmed by Campaign Ambassador Amitabh Bachchan. It aims to spread awareness about critical health issues facing the country. In wake of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the need for WASH (WaterSanitation and Hygiene) is reaffirmed as handwashing is one of the ways to prevent Coronavirus infection and other diseases. The campaign highlights the importance of nutrition and healthcare for women and children to prevent maternal and child mortality, fight malnutrition, stunting, wasting, anaemia and disease prevention through vaccines. Importance of programmes like Public Distribution System (PDS), Mid-day Meal Scheme, POSHAN Abhiyan and the role of Aganwadis and ASHA workers are also covered. Only a Swachh or clean India where toilets are used and open defecation free (ODF) status achieved as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2014, can eradicate diseases like diahorrea and become a Swasth or healthy India. The campaign will continue to cover issues like air pollutionwaste managementplastic banmanual scavenging and sanitation workers and menstrual hygiene

World

11,71,50,768Cases
4,82,03,864Active
6,63,47,035Recovered
25,99,869Deaths
Coronavirus has spread to 192 countries. The total confirmed cases worldwide are 11,71,50,768 and 25,99,869 have died; 4,82,03,864 are active cases and 6,63,47,035 have recovered as on March 9, 2021 at 3:49 am.

India

1,12,44,786 15388Cases
1,87,462 -1285Active
1,08,99,394 16596Recovered
1,57,930 77Deaths
In India, there are 1,12,44,786 confirmed cases including 1,57,930 deaths. The number of active cases is 1,87,462 and 1,08,99,394 have recovered as on March 9, 2021 at 2:30 am.

State & District Details

State Cases Active Recovered Deaths
DistrictCases
Mumbai45,478
Thane13,660
Pune9,920
Mumbai Suburban5,363
Aurangabad1,974
Nashik1,575
Raigad1,462
Palghar1,421
Solapur1,291
Jalgaon1,039
Akola757
Nagpur692
Kolhapur646
Satara629
Ratnagiri350
Amravati291
Dhule228
Hingoli208
Jalna201
Ahmednagar190
Nanded176
Yavatmal150
Sangli145
Latur139
Osmanabad125
Sindhudurg114
Buldhana88
Parbhani78
gondia69
Beed54
Nandurbar42
Gadchiroli42
Bhandara41
Chandrapur32
Washim13
Wardha11

22,28,471 8,744

98,859 346

20,77,112 9,068

52,500 22

DistrictCases
Kannur357
Kasaragod333
Palakkad224
Malappuram119
Kollam118
Thrissur106
Thiruvananthapuram104
Pathanamthitta98
Kozhikode90
Alappuzha76
Kottayam73
Ernakulam60
Idukki40
Wayanad36

10,78,739 1,412

39,532 1,630

10,34,895 3,030

4,312 12

DistrictCases
Udupi1,176
Kalaburagi669
Yadgir538
Bengaluru Urban529
Raichur369
Mandya346
Belagavi337
Bidar219
Hassan205
Davangere204
Vijayapura201
Dakshina Kannada179
Chikkaballapura149
Mysuru107
Bagalkote103
Uttara Kannada95
Shivamogga67
Dharwad61
Ballari60
Gadag45
Bengaluru Rural40
Tumakuru36
Kolar29
Haveri24
Chikkamagaluru19
Chitradurga14
Koppal5
Kodagu4
Ramanagara3
Chamarajanagara0

9,55,451 436

6,834 47

9,36,250 478

12,367 5

DistrictCases
Kurnool795
Krishna557
Guntur511
Anantapur428
East Godavari356
Chittoor319
Sri Potti Sriramulu Nell*296
Y.S.R.205
West Godavari199
Srikakulam183
Prakasam104
Visakhapatnam103
Vizianagaram23

8,90,766 74

1,009 11

8,82,581 61

7,176 2

DistrictCases
Chennai23,324
Chengalpattu1,314
Thiruvallur774
Villupuram509
Kanchipuram503
Tiruvannamalai496
Cuddalore477
Ariyalur444
Tirunelveli433
Tuticorin333
Kallakurichi324
Madurai322
Salem258
Coimbatore188
Virudhunagar185
Dindigul175
Perambalur133
Ranipet133
Thanjavur130
Theni129
Tiruchirappalli119
Ramanathapuram119
Tiruppur116
Kanniyakumari110
Tenkasi103
Nagapattinam99
Karur88
Namakkal83
Erode75
Vellore71
Thiruvarur67
Pudukkottai53
Sivaganga46
Tirupathur45
Krishnagiri43
The Nilgiris17
Dharmapuri15

8,55,677 556

4,018 21

8,39,138 532

12,521 3

DistrictCases
North West5,463
Central4,817
West4,768
New Delhi3,405
North3,059
East2,472
South East2,446
South West2,391
South2,329
North East1,914
Shahdara1,580

6,41,340 239

1,730 73

6,28,686 309

10,924 3

DistrictCases
Gautam Buddha Nagar1,119
Agra933
Ghaziabad794
Meerut504
Lucknow386
Saharanpur298
Kanpur Nagar286
Moradabad252
Varanasi243
Hapur225
Aligarh215
Basti214
Amethi206
Rampur203
Jaunpur194
Firozabad190
Barabanki168
Gorakhpur166
Bulandshahr166
Siddharth Nagar159
Ghazipur159
Bijnor157
Deoria143
Azamgarh138
Sant Kabeer Nagar132
Mathura129
Ayodhya120
Muzaffarnagar117
Sambhal116
Sultanpur97
Ambedkar Nagar92
Maharajganj85
Amroha80
Rae Bareli78
Bahraich73
Kheri72
Kannauj69
Baghpat68
Kushi Nagar67
Bhadohi60
Ballia60
Gonda59
Etah52
Hardoi49
Balrampur49
Mau48
Mainpuri46
Etawah46
Hathras43
Unnao42
Jalaun41
Jhansi41
Shamli40
Chandauli38
Auraiya37
Farrukhabad36
Sitapur32
Prayagraj30
Banda27
Shahjahanpur25
Shravasti23
Budaun23
Mirzapur22
Bareilly17
Kasganj16
Pratapgarh15
Pilibhit15
Sonbhadra10
Kaushambi6
Kanpur Dehat4
Chitrakoot4
Lalitpur3
Hamirpur3
Mahoba3
Fatehpur3

6,04,380 101

1,634 13

5,94,008 113

8,738 1

DistrictCases
Kolkata2,777
Howrah1,435
24 Paraganas North1,031
Hooghly604
24 Paraganas South281
Maldah235
Dinajpur Uttar216
Coochbehar210
Birbhum206
Medinipur West159
Medinipur East153
Nadia139
Purba Bardhaman130
Murshidabad125
Bankura116
Darjeeling97
Jalpaiguri88
Paschim Bardhaman70
Purulia66
Dinajpur Dakshin50
Alipurduar39
Kalimpong18
Jhargram9

5,76,838 215

3,155 8

5,63,403 221

10,280 2

DistrictCases
Ganjam581
Jajapur322
Khordha238
Baleshwar190
Kendrapara164
Cuttack155
Bhadrak137
Balangir129
Puri103
Sundargarh102
Jagatsinghapur91
Nayagarh86
Mayurbhanj73
Nuapada69
Gajapati61
Dhenkanal36
Boudh34
Kendujhar34
Deogarh33
Kalahandi33
Sonepur29
Kandhamal28
Anugul26
Malkangiri20
Bargarh16
Koraput16
Sambalpur16
Jharsuguda8
Nabarangpur2
Rayagada2

3,37,803 59

718 29

3,35,168 88

1,917

DistrictCases
Jaipur2,177
Jodhpur1,748
Udaipur724
Bharatpur563
Kota503
Nagaur500
Ajmer379
Dungarpur374
Pali352
Jhalawar329
Bhilwara250
Sikar231
Chittorgarh188
Tonk171
Jalore164
Rajsamand140
Sirohi130
Bikaner112
Banswara91
Alwar90
Churu81
Jhunjhunu64
Dausa61
Dholpur60
Baran59
Jaisalmer53
Barmer34
Hanumangarh31
SawaiMadhopur26
Karauli17
Pratapgarh14
Ganganagar8
Bundi5

3,21,711 179

1,883 128

3,17,039 51

2,789

DistrictCases
Bilaspur100
Korba100
Mungeli87
Baloda Bazar85
Jashpur77
Janjgir-Champa56
Mahasamund54
Rajnandgaon52
Kabirdham52
Raigarh47
Raipur46
Balod41
Korea39
Durg31
Bemetara21
Kanker19
Balrampur17
Surguja14
Gariyaband10
Surajpur9
Dhamtari6
Bijapur2
Bastar2
Dantewada0
Kondagaon0
Narayanpur0
Sukma0

3,14,640 320

2,919 99

3,07,862 220

3,859 1

DistrictCases
Hyderabad2,475
Ranga Reddy183
Suryapet87
Jagitial77
Nizamabad76
MedchalMalkajgiri75
Mancherial43
YadadriBhuvanagiri40
Jogulamba Gadwal40
Vikarabad40
Nalgonda33
Warangal Urban32
Mahabubnagar30
Sangareddy26
Khammam26
Adilabad22
Nirmal21
Karimnagar17
RajannaSircilla16
Medak11
Kamareddy11
Mahabubabad10
Jayashankar Bhupalapally9
Nagarkurnool8
Kumuram Bheem Asifabad8
Jangoan8
Siddipet7
Peddapalli5
Bhadradri Kothagudem5
Warangal Rural4
Mulugu3
Narayanpet3
Wanaparthy1

3,00,153 142

1,769 38

2,96,740 178

1,644 2

DistrictCases
Ahmadabad17,125
Surat2,311
Vadodara1,555
Gandhinagar410
Mahesana159
Banas Kantha147
Bhavnagar146
Rajkot135
Arvalli134
Mahisagar125
Anand107
PanchMahals107
Patan105
SabarKantha101
Kachchh99
Kheda98
Jamnagar63
Bharuch56
Botad55
Surendranagar55
Valsad47
GirSomnath45
Dohad43
Chhotaudepur37
Naysari35
Junagadh31
Narmada25
DevbhumiDwarka22
Amreli16
Porbandar11
Tapi6
Dang5
Morbi4

2,73,941 555

3,212 72

2,66,313 482

4,416 1

DistrictCases
Gurugram2,950
Faridabad867
Sonipat404
Rohtak145
Palwal120
Jhajjar114
Karnal104
Hisar98
Ambala93
Panipat78
Nuh68
Bhiwani60
Rewari56
Kurukshetra55
Sirsa50
Kaithal48
Mahendragarh47
CharkiDadri43
Panchkula39
Fatehabad38
Jind38
Yamunanagar19

2,72,751 231

2,083 52

2,67,610 177

3,058 2

DistrictCases
Indore3,839
Bhopal1,880
Ujjain799
Burhanpur351
Neemuch319
Jabalpur276
East Nimar266
Sagar228
Gwalior211
Khargone196
Dewas140
Dhar132
Mandsaur112
Morena109
Bhind87
Raisen71
Barwani60
Ratlam51
Rewa39
Shajapur39
Hoshangabad37
Vidisha37
Chhatarpur35
Betul35
Rajgarh31
Dindori29
Sheopur26
Damoh26
Satna24
Anuppur22
Panna20
Tikamgarh18
Sidhi17
Narsinghpur17
Chhindwara16
Agar Malwa15
Mandla15
Shivpuri15
Jhabua14
Shandol14
Singrauli13
Ashoknagar13
Datia12
Sehore12
Umaria10
Balaghat9
Guna8
Harda4
Alirajpur3
Katni3
Seoni2
Niwari0

2,65,070 427

3,638 32

2,57,560 394

3,872 1

DistrictCases
Patna279
Bhagalpur266
Rohtas256
Khagaria253
Begusarai243
Madhubani199
Munger188
Jehanabad178
Katihar175
Darbhanga143
Samastipur139
Siwan139
PurbiChamparan138
Purnia135
Banka134
Buxar134
Nalanda123
Gopalganj123
Nawada122
Sheikhpura118
Gaya115
Kaimur (bhabua)105
Bhojpur103
Saran101
Muzaffarpur96
Saharsa88
Supaul87
Vaishali87
Madhepura82
Kishanganj75
Aurangabad75
Sitamarhi73
Lakhisarai72
Araria68
Pashchim Champaran57
Arwal52
Jamui47
Sheohar20

2,62,779 21

290 23

2,60,942 43

1,547 1

DistrictCases
Kamrup Metro276
Golaghat203
Nagaon143
Hojai89
Dima Hasao86
Karimganj85
Tinsukia84
Cachar80
Dibrugarh61
Hailakandi57
Lakhimpur57
Marigaon50
Dhemaji47
Kamrup42
Kokrajhar37
Dhubri30
Charaideo29
Barpeta28
Udalguri28
Sonitpur27
Jorhat24
Nalbari23
Darrang20
Sivasagar20
Goalpara19
Biswanath16
Baksa14
KarbiAnglong13
Bongaigaon12
Chirang6
West KarbiAnglong5
South SalmaraMancachar4
Majuli2

2,17,682 14

1,624 3

2,14,964 17

1,094

DistrictCases
Amritsar485
Jalandhar297
Ludhiana293
Tarn Taran163
Gurdaspur154
Hoshiarpur140
S.A.S Nagar137
Patiala132
Sangrur107
Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar (Nawanshahr)99
Pathankot86
Rupnagar (Ropar)74
Faridkot74
Sri Muktsar Sahib71
Moga65
Bathinda60
Fatehgarh Sahib57
Fazilka53
Firozepur50
Kapurthala44
Mansa31
Barnala25

1,89,620 1,229

8,020 523

1,75,659 692

5,941 14

DistrictCases
Anantnag395
Srinagar300
Kulgam295
Baramulla271
Shopian255
Kupwara231
Bandipora175
Udhampur155
Ramban151
Jammu138
Budgam110
Pulwama108
Kathua53
Rajouri39
Ganderbal37
Poonch35
Doda27
Reasi26
Samba25
Kishtwar10
Mirpur0
Muzaffarabad0

1,27,114 70

871 21

1,24,280 90

1,963 1

DistrictCases
East Singhbum170
Ranchi148
Hazaribagh110
Garhwa80
Ramgarh75
Koderma58
Simdega48
Dhanbad32
Gumla28
Palamu27
West Singhbhum21
SaraikelaKharsawan20
Giridih19
Bokaro16
Latehar14
Khunti10
Lohardaga8
Deoghar5
Dumka5
Pakur4
Jamtara2
Godda2
Chatra1
Sahebganj0

1,20,312 53

472 9

1,18,747 44

1,093

DistrictCases
Dehradun370
Nainital323
Tehri Garhwal110
Haridwar94
Udam Singh Nagar83
Almora71
Champawat45
Pithoragarh43
Chamoli36
PauriGarhwal36
Bageshwar31
Rudraprayag30
Uttar Kashi24

97,480 58

662 30

95,123 28

1,695

DistrictCases
Hamirpur117
Kangra105
Una41
Solan32
Chamba29
Bilaspur21
Mandi21
Sirmaur11
Shimla10
Kullu4
Kinnaur2
Lahaul And Spiti0

59,197 79

617 3

57,580 73

1,000 3

DistrictCases
South Goa69
North Goa57

55,463 54

632 56

54,032 110

799

DistrictCases
Pondicherry111
Mahe4
Karaikal2
Yanam0

39,882 14

171 5

39,041 19

670

DistrictCases
Dhalai196
Sepahijala174
Gomati74
South Tripura53
Unakoti49
West Tripura45
Khowai24
North Tripura14

33,424

30 0

33,003

391

DistrictCases
Churachandpur32
Kangpokpi26
Imphal West21
Thoubal18
Imphal East10
Tengnoupal9
Bishnupur7
Senapati6
Chandel5
Kamjong5
Ukhrul4
Jiribam3
Pherzawl3
Kakching2
Tamenglong2
Noney1

29,296 5

29 1

28,894 4

373

DistrictCases
Chandigarh313

22,397 79

725 15

21,316 63

356 1

DistrictCases
Changlang31
Papum Pare8
Lohit3
Namsai2
West Siang1
East Siang1
Upper Siang1
Tawang1
PakkeKessang1
West Kameng0
Upper Subansiri0
Tirap0
Siang0
Shi Yomi0
Anjaw0
Lower Subansiri0
Lower Dibang Valley0
Longding0
Leparada0
KurungKumey0
KraDaadi0
Kamle0
East Kameng0
Dibang Valley0
Lower Siang0

16,839

3 0

16,780

56

DistrictCases
East Khasi Hills22
West Garo Hills5
South West Garo Hills4
North Garo Hills1
West Jaintia Hills1
West Khasi Hills1
East Garo Hills0
East Jaintia Hills0
Ribhoi0
South Garo Hills0
South West Khasi Hills0

13,973 1

12 1

13,813 2

148

DistrictCases
Dimapur20
Mon8
Kohima7
Kiphire3
Tuensang3
Peren2
Phek1
Longleng0
Mokokchung0
Wokha0
Zunheboto0

12,217

19 1

12,107 1

91

DistrictCases
Kargil77
LehLadakh43

9,833 2

44 0

9,659 2

130

DistrictCases
East District3
South District3
North District0
West District0

6,174

50 0

5,989

135

DistrictCases
South Andamans33
Nicobars1
North And Middle Andaman1

5,026 2

7 0

4,957 2

62

DistrictCases
Kolasib11
Aizawl10
Mamit8
Lawngtlai2
Lunglei2
Saitual1
Champhai0
Hnahthial0
Khawzawl0
Saiha0
Serchhip0

4,432 4

10 2

4,412 2

10

DistrictCases
Dadra And Nagar Haveli20

3,421 5

17 5

3,402

2

DistrictCases
Lakshadweep District0

494 8

164 6

329 2

1

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