New Delhi: One of the most visited tourist destinations of India, Goa has been ranked 4th among the 8 smaller states in India, as per the ‘Healthy States, Progressive India – 2017-18’, a health index ranking by Niti Aayog, which was topped by Mizoram, followed by Manipur and Tripura in the ranks 2 and 3, respectively. The India Child Well-Being Report released by non-profit World Vision India and the Institute of Financial Management and Research this year also listed Goa among the top ten states in India whose children are the happiest. The report was based on various health indicators such as stunting and infant mortality, under-five mortality rate, mental health/ illnesses, among others.
Here’s a quick look at Goa’s performance in terms of various health indicators:
- Infant Mortality Rate: The infant mortality rate (before the age of one year) in Goa, according to National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 4 was down to 13 per 1,000 live births in 2015-16, from 15 per 1,000 live births as per the NFHS-3 (2005-2006). This is way lower that the national rate of infant mortality, which was at 41 per 1,000 live births in 2015-16 down from 51 per 1,000 live births in 2005-06.
- Under-Five Mortality Rate (U5MR): As per NFHS 4, Goa’s under-five mortality rate (U5MR) (children dying under the age of five) is at 13 per 1,000 live births in 2015-16, down from 20 per 1,000 live births in 2005-06, which is far better than the national rate of mortality of children under 5 years is at 50 per 1,000 live births in 2015-16, down from 74 per 1,000 live births in 2005-06.
- Malnutrition: According to NFHS 4, Goa has seen a decrease in the cases of stunting of children under 5 years to 20.1 per cent from 25.6 per cent in the year 2005-06, ageing doing better than the overall country’s performance stunting was 38.4 per cent in 2015-2016 as per the NFHS 4. The state has also witnessed a minor decline in the cases of children under 5 years who are underweight (low weight-for-age) – from 25 per cent (2005-06) to 23.8 per cent (2015-16), as per the NFHS 4. The national average for underweight children is 35.8 per cent (2015-16) which is far higher than Goa. While, the stunting and underweight statistics of Goa show a minor decline, the wasting per cent showed an increase from 14.1 percent in in 2005-2006 to 21.9 per cent in 2015-16. At an all India level too wasting saw an increase but by smaller percentage, rising from 19.8 percent in 2005-06 to 21 percent in 2015-2016.
- Anaemia Among Children And Women: Goa saw almost 10 percent rise in Anaemia cases for children from 38.2 percent in 2005-2006 to 48.3 per cent in 2015-16. When it comes to the women aged 15-49, the state saw a decline in anaemia cases from 38.8 per cent to 31.8 per cent between 2005 and 2015 surveys. The anaemia cases among children and women in Goa are significantly higher than levels seen at an all India level of 10.8 per cent (children) and 2.2 per cent (women), as per NFHS 4 survey.
- Diarrhoea Cases And Death: According to National Health Profile 2019 report, Diarrhoeal disease deaths in Goa in 2017 stood at 11 whereas in 2018 there were zero cases. Moreover, out of the over 1.2 crore total case (1,29,27,212) of Diarrhoea reported in India, Goa contributed 23,546 diarrhoea cases (12.75 per cent), but the number of cases did show an increase from 2017 when 20,706 cases of diarrhoea were reported.
According to a study published in the journal PLOS One, gray matter in brain that helps to control the physical movement of the body as well as sensory perception like seeing and hearing is affected adversely due exposure to air pollution in early years