World AIDS Day 2020: Five Things To Know About HIV Infection

World AIDS Day 2020: Five Things To Know About HIV Infection

World AIDS Day 2020: From symptoms to transmission, here are five things to know about HIV and AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)
Health, News, World Aids Day
- in Health, News, World Aids Day
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World AIDS Day 2020: Five Things To Know About HIV InfectionWorld AIDS Day 2020: In 2019 nearly 7 lakh people died of HIV related causes, says WHO
Highlights
  • HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) targets the auto immunity of the person
  • AIDS is the last stage of the HIV infection: Dr Rohan, Jaslok Hospital
  • HIV is transmitted through exchange of body fluid and physical contact

New Delhi: The world has made significant progress since the late 1990s, but HIV remains a major global public health issue, according to World Health Organisation (WHO). To raise awareness and educate people about the major health issue, December 1 is marked as World AIDS Day. This year the fight against HIV has been further compounded by the COVID-19 pandemic. The worldwide outbreak of SARS-COV-2 resulted in disruption of HIV prevention, testing, treatment and care services particularly in countries with fragile health systems. To fight the dual health crisis, WHO has called for global solidarity.

Also Read: World AIDS Day 2020: Odisha’s Sand Artists Call For Global Solidarity, Shared Responsibility

On World AIDS Day, here are five things you need to know about HIV and AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).

What is the difference between HIV and AIDS?

Explaining the two terms, Dr. Rohan Sequeira, Consultant General Medicine, Jaslok Hospital & Research Centre, said,

As the name suggests, HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) essentially targets the auto immunity of the person. There are different kinds of cells in the body called T cells (also called T lymphocytes), B cells, and memory cells, among others. HIV virus destroys those cells and leaves the body with no defence mechanism.

HIV is the virus which causes the infection and AIDS is the last stage of the HIV infection where the immune system of the body is completely knocked out, added Dr Sequeira.

As per WHO, now as more and more people access the treatment called antiretroviral therapy (ART), most people living with HIV do not progress to AIDS. However, AIDS is more likely to occur in people with HIV who have not been tested, in people who are diagnosed at a late stage of infection, and in people who are not taking ART.

Also Read: World AIDS Day 2020: A Day Of Solidarity To Prevent HIV And Support People Living With It

How is HIV transmitted?

HIV is found in certain bodily fluids of people living with HIV, including blood, semen, vaginal fluids, rectal fluids and breastmilk, explains WHO. The exchange of infected body fluid is considered as the main source of transmission. Further elaborating on this, Dr. Vinay D, Infectious Diseases Physician, Apollo Hospitals, Bengaluru, said,

The main routes of transmission are multiple unprotected sexual interaction; blood transfusion that is not tested for HIV; sharing of needles, syringes, other injecting equipment; from mother to infant during pregnancy, child birth or breastfeeding.

What are the symptoms of HIV?

Though HIV is diagnosed with a blood test, there are some common symptoms like weakened immunity that can further expose an individual to any kind of infection and signal the risk of HIV. Dr. Vinay D suggested that early symptoms of HIV are unexplained fever lasting more than 14 days, unexplained skin rashes, nausea, significant weight loss like more than 2 kgs in a month and skin manifestation.

Both Dr Vinay D and Dr Sequeria noted that HIV patients are at a very high risk of getting tuberculosis (TB) and in India, TB is the most common disease exhibited by HIV patients. The experts suggested testing all TB patients for HIV. Dr Sequeria added,

There is a very rare condition called hairy leukoplakia over the tongue. It’s a different kind of skin lesion in the mouth.

What is the treatment for HIV?

As of today, there is no vaccine or cure available for HIV infection but it can be treated using antiretroviral drugs which prevent multiplication of the virus in the human body and control the disease. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) targets the virus at different levels and suppresses the infection. Explaining the treatment, Dr Sequeria said,

Under ART, a combination of drugs are given and together they target the virus at multiple areas. It’s like army, air force, and navy all three attacking one enemy at the same. But, there are side-effects of ART too. Some people may develop problems in the blood, nausea, vomiting, skin rashes, neurological symptom, and eye problem. Patients taking ART have to go for regular monitoring.

CD4 count that measures the robustness of the immune system is used to see how well a person is responding to medication. An increase or decrease in CD4 count depicts the improvement and progression in the infection.

As per WHO, people living with HIV are also much less likely to transmit the virus to others when treatment is working.

How long HIV goes undetected and who is at the most risk?

Dr Vinay D said that a person may not show symptoms of HIV for 5 years. In most of the cases, people are asymptomatic and HIV is detected incidentally in the sense, someone might have gone for blood donation where tests are done and HIV is diagnosed. According to experts, everyone is at risk as the transmission depends on the physical contact and exchange of body fluid.

“Usually, HIV is seen among people belonging to lower social economic strata because of lack of knowledge. One very high risk group is truck drivers because they live long and lonely lives. They need physically intimacy even if it is at a cost. They don’t think at that time. This is where the education should be targeted”, Dr Sequeria added.

Also Read: World AIDS Day 2020: A Look At How HIV-AIDS Has Been Impacting The World

Conclusion

According to the 2020 World AIDS Day report of UNICEF, the global community is still far from ending AIDS as a public health threat by 2030. But it remains an achievable and important goal. The number of AIDS-related deaths among children aged 0–19 has fallen by more than one-half (53 per cent) since 2000. In addition, younger children infected with HIV at birth are now more likely to survive into adolescence or adulthood.

Winnie Byanyima, the Executive Director, UNAIDS believes that India has fared well in bringing down AIDS related new infections and deaths. Talking to NDTV, she said,

The positive news is that the country has been able to bring down AIDS-related new infections in the last 10 years by 38 per cent and AIDS-related deaths by 56 per cent. But, the country needs to make more progress as still 2.1 million people are living with the disease.

Also Read: World Aids Day 2020: India Needs Stronger Focus On Addressing Mother To Child Transmission Of HIV, Says Winnie Byanyima, Executive Director, UNAIDS

In 2014, UNAIDS announced a 90-90-90 strategy with an aim to end the disease by 2030. The strategy includes identifying 90 per cent of people living with HIV through expanded testing, placing the 90 per cent of positively identified individuals on treatment, and ensuring that 90 per cent of those on therapy are able to achieve undetectable viral loads indicative of treatment success.

UNICEF believes that to achieve the global AIDS targets by 2030, ensuring rights to health and protection for young key populations is non-negotiable. The organisation believes that stigma around HIV silently impacts the health and well-being and hence it has called to invest in building a conducive, non-discriminatory legal environment.

Also Read: Expert Blog: HIV Prevention- Ending The HIV Epidemic Together

NDTV – Dettol Banega Swasth India campaign is an extension of the five-year-old Banega Swachh India initiative helmed by Campaign Ambassador Amitabh Bachchan. It aims to spread awareness about critical health issues facing the country. In wake of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the need for WASH (WaterSanitation and Hygiene) is reaffirmed as handwashing is one of the ways to prevent Coronavirus infection and other diseases. The campaign highlights the importance of nutrition and healthcare for women and children to prevent maternal and child mortality, fight malnutrition, stunting, wasting, anaemia and disease prevention through vaccines. Importance of programmes like Public Distribution System (PDS), Mid-day Meal Scheme, POSHAN Abhiyan and the role of Aganwadis and ASHA workers are also covered. Only a Swachh or clean India where toilets are used and open defecation free (ODF) status achieved as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2014, can eradicate diseases like diahorrea and become a Swasth or healthy India. The campaign will continue to cover issues like air pollutionwaste managementplastic banmanual scavenging and sanitation workers and menstrual hygiene

World

9,87,19,695Cases
4,21,73,757Active
5,44,25,394Recovered
21,20,544Deaths
Coronavirus has spread to 192 countries. The total confirmed cases worldwide are 9,87,19,695 and 21,20,544 have died; 4,21,73,757 are active cases and 5,44,25,394 have recovered as on January 24, 2021 at 4:12 am.

India

1,06,54,533 14849Cases
1,84,408 -1254Active
1,03,16,786 15948Recovered
1,53,339 155Deaths
In India, there are 1,06,54,533 confirmed cases including 1,53,339 deaths. The number of active cases is 1,84,408 and 1,03,16,786 have recovered as on January 24, 2021 at 2:30 am.

State & District Details

State Cases Active Recovered Deaths
DistrictCases
Mumbai45,478
Thane13,660
Pune9,920
Mumbai Suburban5,363
Aurangabad1,974
Nashik1,575
Raigad1,462
Palghar1,421
Solapur1,291
Jalgaon1,039
Akola757
Nagpur692
Kolhapur646
Satara629
Ratnagiri350
Amravati291
Dhule228
Hingoli208
Jalna201
Ahmednagar190
Nanded176
Yavatmal150
Sangli145
Latur139
Osmanabad125
Sindhudurg114
Buldhana88
Parbhani78
gondia69
Beed54
Nandurbar42
Gadchiroli42
Bhandara41
Chandrapur32
Washim13
Wardha11

20,06,354 2,697

45,093 1,053

19,10,521 3,694

50,740 56

DistrictCases
Udupi1,176
Kalaburagi669
Yadgir538
Bengaluru Urban529
Raichur369
Mandya346
Belagavi337
Bidar219
Hassan205
Davangere204
Vijayapura201
Dakshina Kannada179
Chikkaballapura149
Mysuru107
Bagalkote103
Uttara Kannada95
Shivamogga67
Dharwad61
Ballari60
Gadag45
Bengaluru Rural40
Tumakuru36
Kolar29
Haveri24
Chikkamagaluru19
Chitradurga14
Koppal5
Kodagu4
Ramanagara3
Chamarajanagara0

9,35,478 902

7,361 357

9,15,924 542

12,193 3

DistrictCases
Kurnool795
Krishna557
Guntur511
Anantapur428
East Godavari356
Chittoor319
Sri Potti Sriramulu Nell*296
Y.S.R.205
West Godavari199
Srikakulam183
Prakasam104
Visakhapatnam103
Vizianagaram23

8,86,852 158

1,473 15

8,78,232 172

7,147 1

DistrictCases
Kannur357
Kasaragod333
Palakkad224
Malappuram119
Kollam118
Thrissur106
Thiruvananthapuram104
Pathanamthitta98
Kozhikode90
Alappuzha76
Kottayam73
Ernakulam60
Idukki40
Wayanad36

8,84,242 6,960

72,278 1,654

8,08,377 5,283

3,587 23

DistrictCases
Chennai23,324
Chengalpattu1,314
Thiruvallur774
Villupuram509
Kanchipuram503
Tiruvannamalai496
Cuddalore477
Ariyalur444
Tirunelveli433
Tuticorin333
Kallakurichi324
Madurai322
Salem258
Coimbatore188
Virudhunagar185
Dindigul175
Perambalur133
Ranipet133
Thanjavur130
Theni129
Tiruchirappalli119
Ramanathapuram119
Tiruppur116
Kanniyakumari110
Tenkasi103
Nagapattinam99
Karur88
Namakkal83
Erode75
Vellore71
Thiruvarur67
Pudukkottai53
Sivaganga46
Tirupathur45
Krishnagiri43
The Nilgiris17
Dharmapuri15

8,34,171 586

4,984 89

8,16,878 673

12,309 2

DistrictCases
North West5,463
Central4,817
West4,768
New Delhi3,405
North3,059
East2,472
South East2,446
South West2,391
South2,329
North East1,914
Shahdara1,580

6,33,739 197

1,880 180

6,21,060 367

10,799 10

DistrictCases
Gautam Buddha Nagar1,119
Agra933
Ghaziabad794
Meerut504
Lucknow386
Saharanpur298
Kanpur Nagar286
Moradabad252
Varanasi243
Hapur225
Aligarh215
Basti214
Amethi206
Rampur203
Jaunpur194
Firozabad190
Barabanki168
Gorakhpur166
Bulandshahr166
Siddharth Nagar159
Ghazipur159
Bijnor157
Deoria143
Azamgarh138
Sant Kabeer Nagar132
Mathura129
Ayodhya120
Muzaffarnagar117
Sambhal116
Sultanpur97
Ambedkar Nagar92
Maharajganj85
Amroha80
Rae Bareli78
Bahraich73
Kheri72
Kannauj69
Baghpat68
Kushi Nagar67
Bhadohi60
Ballia60
Gonda59
Etah52
Hardoi49
Balrampur49
Mau48
Mainpuri46
Etawah46
Hathras43
Unnao42
Jalaun41
Jhansi41
Shamli40
Chandauli38
Auraiya37
Farrukhabad36
Sitapur32
Prayagraj30
Banda27
Shahjahanpur25
Shravasti23
Budaun23
Mirzapur22
Bareilly17
Kasganj16
Pratapgarh15
Pilibhit15
Sonbhadra10
Kaushambi6
Kanpur Dehat4
Chitrakoot4
Lalitpur3
Hamirpur3
Mahoba3
Fatehpur3

5,98,445 319

7,330 198

5,82,506 513

8,609 4

DistrictCases
Kolkata2,777
Howrah1,435
24 Paraganas North1,031
Hooghly604
24 Paraganas South281
Maldah235
Dinajpur Uttar216
Coochbehar210
Birbhum206
Medinipur West159
Medinipur East153
Nadia139
Purba Bardhaman130
Murshidabad125
Bankura116
Darjeeling97
Jalpaiguri88
Paschim Bardhaman70
Purulia66
Dinajpur Dakshin50
Alipurduar39
Kalimpong18
Jhargram9

5,67,714 410

6,396 74

5,51,211 474

10,107 10

DistrictCases
Ganjam581
Jajapur322
Khordha238
Baleshwar190
Kendrapara164
Cuttack155
Bhadrak137
Balangir129
Puri103
Sundargarh102
Jagatsinghapur91
Nayagarh86
Mayurbhanj73
Nuapada69
Gajapati61
Dhenkanal36
Boudh34
Kendujhar34
Deogarh33
Kalahandi33
Sonepur29
Kandhamal28
Anugul26
Malkangiri20
Bargarh16
Koraput16
Sambalpur16
Jharsuguda8
Nabarangpur2
Rayagada2

3,34,150 130

1,284 76

3,30,962 205

1,904 1

DistrictCases
Jaipur2,177
Jodhpur1,748
Udaipur724
Bharatpur563
Kota503
Nagaur500
Ajmer379
Dungarpur374
Pali352
Jhalawar329
Bhilwara250
Sikar231
Chittorgarh188
Tonk171
Jalore164
Rajsamand140
Sirohi130
Bikaner112
Banswara91
Alwar90
Churu81
Jhunjhunu64
Dausa61
Dholpur60
Baran59
Jaisalmer53
Barmer34
Hanumangarh31
SawaiMadhopur26
Karauli17
Pratapgarh14
Ganganagar8
Bundi5

3,16,485 203

3,448 271

3,10,279 472

2,758 2

DistrictCases
Bilaspur100
Korba100
Mungeli87
Baloda Bazar85
Jashpur77
Janjgir-Champa56
Mahasamund54
Rajnandgaon52
Kabirdham52
Raigarh47
Raipur46
Balod41
Korea39
Durg31
Bemetara21
Kanker19
Balrampur17
Surguja14
Gariyaband10
Surajpur9
Dhamtari6
Bijapur2
Bastar2
Dantewada0
Kondagaon0
Narayanpur0
Sukma0

2,96,326 377

5,040 268

2,87,677 637

3,609 8

DistrictCases
Hyderabad2,475
Ranga Reddy183
Suryapet87
Jagitial77
Nizamabad76
MedchalMalkajgiri75
Mancherial43
YadadriBhuvanagiri40
Jogulamba Gadwal40
Vikarabad40
Nalgonda33
Warangal Urban32
Mahabubnagar30
Sangareddy26
Khammam26
Adilabad22
Nirmal21
Karimnagar17
RajannaSircilla16
Medak11
Kamareddy11
Mahabubabad10
Jayashankar Bhupalapally9
Nagarkurnool8
Kumuram Bheem Asifabad8
Jangoan8
Siddipet7
Peddapalli5
Bhadradri Kothagudem5
Warangal Rural4
Mulugu3
Narayanpet3
Wanaparthy1

2,93,253 197

3,389 180

2,88,275 376

1,589 1

DistrictCases
Gurugram2,950
Faridabad867
Sonipat404
Rohtak145
Palwal120
Jhajjar114
Karnal104
Hisar98
Ambala93
Panipat78
Nuh68
Bhiwani60
Rewari56
Kurukshetra55
Sirsa50
Kaithal48
Mahendragarh47
CharkiDadri43
Panchkula39
Fatehabad38
Jind38
Yamunanagar19

2,67,075 136

1,559 26

2,62,507 158

3,009 4

DistrictCases
Ahmadabad17,125
Surat2,311
Vadodara1,555
Gandhinagar410
Mahesana159
Banas Kantha147
Bhavnagar146
Rajkot135
Arvalli134
Mahisagar125
Anand107
PanchMahals107
Patan105
SabarKantha101
Kachchh99
Kheda98
Jamnagar63
Bharuch56
Botad55
Surendranagar55
Valsad47
GirSomnath45
Dohad43
Chhotaudepur37
Naysari35
Junagadh31
Narmada25
DevbhumiDwarka22
Amreli16
Porbandar11
Tapi6
Dang5
Morbi4

2,58,687 423

4,960 280

2,49,352 702

4,375 1

DistrictCases
Patna279
Bhagalpur266
Rohtas256
Khagaria253
Begusarai243
Madhubani199
Munger188
Jehanabad178
Katihar175
Darbhanga143
Samastipur139
Siwan139
PurbiChamparan138
Purnia135
Banka134
Buxar134
Nalanda123
Gopalganj123
Nawada122
Sheikhpura118
Gaya115
Kaimur (bhabua)105
Bhojpur103
Saran101
Muzaffarpur96
Saharsa88
Supaul87
Vaishali87
Madhepura82
Kishanganj75
Aurangabad75
Sitamarhi73
Lakhisarai72
Araria68
Pashchim Champaran57
Arwal52
Jamui47
Sheohar20

2,58,638 125

2,599 83

2,54,563 204

1,476 4

DistrictCases
Indore3,839
Bhopal1,880
Ujjain799
Burhanpur351
Neemuch319
Jabalpur276
East Nimar266
Sagar228
Gwalior211
Khargone196
Dewas140
Dhar132
Mandsaur112
Morena109
Bhind87
Raisen71
Barwani60
Ratlam51
Rewa39
Shajapur39
Hoshangabad37
Vidisha37
Chhatarpur35
Betul35
Rajgarh31
Dindori29
Sheopur26
Damoh26
Satna24
Anuppur22
Panna20
Tikamgarh18
Sidhi17
Narsinghpur17
Chhindwara16
Agar Malwa15
Mandla15
Shivpuri15
Jhabua14
Shandol14
Singrauli13
Ashoknagar13
Datia12
Sehore12
Umaria10
Balaghat9
Guna8
Harda4
Alirajpur3
Katni3
Seoni2
Niwari0

2,53,405 291

4,310 169

2,45,309 454

3,786 6

DistrictCases
Kamrup Metro276
Golaghat203
Nagaon143
Hojai89
Dima Hasao86
Karimganj85
Tinsukia84
Cachar80
Dibrugarh61
Hailakandi57
Lakhimpur57
Marigaon50
Dhemaji47
Kamrup42
Kokrajhar37
Dhubri30
Charaideo29
Barpeta28
Udalguri28
Sonitpur27
Jorhat24
Nalbari23
Darrang20
Sivasagar20
Goalpara19
Biswanath16
Baksa14
KarbiAnglong13
Bongaigaon12
Chirang6
West KarbiAnglong5
South SalmaraMancachar4
Majuli2

2,16,976 19

2,407 75

2,13,492 94

1,077

DistrictCases
Amritsar485
Jalandhar297
Ludhiana293
Tarn Taran163
Gurdaspur154
Hoshiarpur140
S.A.S Nagar137
Patiala132
Sangrur107
Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar (Nawanshahr)99
Pathankot86
Rupnagar (Ropar)74
Faridkot74
Sri Muktsar Sahib71
Moga65
Bathinda60
Fatehgarh Sahib57
Fazilka53
Firozepur50
Kapurthala44
Mansa31
Barnala25

1,71,733 211

2,293 31

1,63,887 232

5,553 10

DistrictCases
Anantnag395
Srinagar300
Kulgam295
Baramulla271
Shopian255
Kupwara231
Bandipora175
Udhampur155
Ramban151
Jammu138
Budgam110
Pulwama108
Kathua53
Rajouri39
Ganderbal37
Poonch35
Doda27
Reasi26
Samba25
Kishtwar10
Mirpur0
Muzaffarabad0

1,23,946 94

1,103 5

1,20,914 88

1,929 1

DistrictCases
East Singhbum170
Ranchi148
Hazaribagh110
Garhwa80
Ramgarh75
Koderma58
Simdega48
Dhanbad32
Gumla28
Palamu27
West Singhbhum21
SaraikelaKharsawan20
Giridih19
Bokaro16
Latehar14
Khunti10
Lohardaga8
Deoghar5
Dumka5
Pakur4
Jamtara2
Godda2
Chatra1
Sahebganj0

1,18,232 78

878 100

1,16,293 177

1,061 1

DistrictCases
Dehradun370
Nainital323
Tehri Garhwal110
Haridwar94
Udam Singh Nagar83
Almora71
Champawat45
Pithoragarh43
Chamoli36
PauriGarhwal36
Bageshwar31
Rudraprayag30
Uttar Kashi24

95,586 122

1,733 62

92,224 184

1,629

DistrictCases
Hamirpur117
Kangra105
Una41
Solan32
Chamba29
Bilaspur21
Mandi21
Sirmaur11
Shimla10
Kullu4
Kinnaur2
Lahaul And Spiti0

57,189 27

469 47

55,749 73

971 1

DistrictCases
South Goa69
North Goa57

52,867 85

873 19

51,233 63

761 3

DistrictCases
Pondicherry111
Mahe4
Karaikal2
Yanam0

38,830 36

302 8

37,884 27

644 1

DistrictCases
Dhalai196
Sepahijala174
Gomati74
South Tripura53
Unakoti49
West Tripura45
Khowai24
North Tripura14

33,345 1

35 1

32,919

391

DistrictCases
Churachandpur32
Kangpokpi26
Imphal West21
Thoubal18
Imphal East10
Tengnoupal9
Bishnupur7
Senapati6
Chandel5
Kamjong5
Ukhrul4
Jiribam3
Pherzawl3
Kakching2
Tamenglong2
Noney1

28,970 17

196 1

28,405 18

369

DistrictCases
Chandigarh313

20,686 22

127 10

20,226 31

333 1

DistrictCases
Changlang31
Papum Pare8
Lohit3
Namsai2
West Siang1
East Siang1
Upper Siang1
Tawang1
PakkeKessang1
West Kameng0
Upper Subansiri0
Tirap0
Siang0
Shi Yomi0
Anjaw0
Lower Subansiri0
Lower Dibang Valley0
Longding0
Leparada0
KurungKumey0
KraDaadi0
Kamle0
East Kameng0
Dibang Valley0
Lower Siang0

16,818 1

37 0

16,725 1

56

DistrictCases
East Khasi Hills22
West Garo Hills5
South West Garo Hills4
North Garo Hills1
West Jaintia Hills1
West Khasi Hills1
East Garo Hills0
East Jaintia Hills0
Ribhoi0
South Garo Hills0
South West Khasi Hills0

13,727 4

122 6

13,459 10

146

DistrictCases
Dimapur20
Mon8
Kohima7
Kiphire3
Tuensang3
Peren2
Phek1
Longleng0
Mokokchung0
Wokha0
Zunheboto0

12,076 4

104 0

11,884 4

88

DistrictCases
Kargil77
LehLadakh43

9,675 2

62 6

9,484 8

129

DistrictCases
East District3
South District3
North District0
West District0

6,068 5

134 6

5,802 10

132 1

DistrictCases
South Andamans33
Nicobars1
North And Middle Andaman1

4,993 1

24 1

4,907

62

DistrictCases
Kolasib11
Aizawl10
Mamit8
Lawngtlai2
Lunglei2
Saitual1
Champhai0
Hnahthial0
Khawzawl0
Saiha0
Serchhip0

4,351 2

58 0

4,284 2

9

DistrictCases
Dadra And Nagar Haveli20

3,394

10 0

3,382

2

DistrictCases
Lakshadweep District0

57 7

57 7

0

0

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