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Freedom From COVID-19: “Our Scientific Institutions Have Really Risen To The Occasion, To The Need Of The Society During Covid Crisis,” Says Dr Rakesh Mishra, Scientist

Meet Dr Rakesh Mishra, Director, Tata Institute for Genetics and Society, Bangalore who has been on the forefront of Covid research and contributing towards building strategies to contain the pandemic. Dr Mishra spoke to Banega Swasth India team as part of a special Independence Day series on what needs to be done to put an end to the pandemic

Our Scientific Institutions Have Risen To The Occasion During Covid: Says Dr Rakesh Mishra
Highlights
  • Covid has taught us that we need to invest more in science: Dr Mishra
  • India must become self-reliant in terms of technology, healthcare: Expert
  • People’s behaviour will determine the intensity of the third wave: Dr Mishr

New Delhi: Scientists have been at the forefront of the fight against COVID-19 across the globe. Not only have they been playing pivotal roles in Covid research, diagnostics, developing vaccines and knowledge creation but have also been active members of various taskforce, panels and networks helping the governments and policymakers to devise strategies to make the world Covid free. In a special series, on this Independence Day, NDTV spoke to one of India’s foremost scientists who has been studying the genetic information of coronavirus, catching mutations and warning about variants. 60-year-old Dr Rakesh Mishra, Director, Tata Institute for Genetics and Society, Bangalore, was a member of the Indian SARS-CoV-2 Genome Sequencing Consortia (INSACOG) that had warned the government before the second wave of new contagious variants of coronavirus becoming dominant in the country and likely to cause a significant spike in cases and deaths. Dr Mishra was formerly the director of the Council Of Scientific And Industrial Research–Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CSIR-CCMB), Hyderabad and is also a member of expert advisory panels on Covid for the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. Here is his take on India’s fight against the pandemic so far and the way forward.

Also Read: Freedom From COVID-19: “We Will Come Up Victorious, Learn From The Pandemic And Move On”, Says Dr Sandeep Budhiraja Of Max Healthcare

Role Of Genome Sequencing In the Fight Against Covid

In order to understand any organism, it is important to read the details of its genome which is the DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) and this process is called genome sequencing, said Dr Mishra. He added,

Genome is the very basis of life and all living creatures. As the genome changes, organisms change and new things emerge, that’s why we have so much diversity all around. Even two individuals are different. Viruses use their capacity of making changes in the genome in a very effective manner. They change a lot while replicating themselves. It tends to make some errors while replicating and this is called mutations. There are now standard methods using which we can sequence within hours organisms like coronavirus which has about 30,000 basis long genome. Coronavirus is an RNA (Ribonucleic acid) virus so we have to convert the RNA into DNA and then read the bits and pieces of that DNA in small fragrants and put it together and we have the whole genome of the virus. Even if one nucleotide out of 30,000 has changed, we will be able to pick. Genome sequencing is fundamental in containing the pandemic and has assumed an important role in the fight against Covid since the very beginning of the Covid crisis. It is the basis of vaccine strategy and even diagnosis.

He further said that genome sequencing helps in getting vital information about the disease and its spread.

It helps us know how the new variants are impacting the present efforts to control the pandemic, if it is becoming more infectious or can spread faster or can be clinically troublesome or can evade the immune system. Depending upon its changes, a virus acquires new characteristics which is why it is very important to continuously sequence the virus, he added.

On how genome sequencing helped contain the spread of the UK variant in Hyderabad, Dr Mishra said,

You can track the path of the spread of the virus that from where this virus has come through genome sequencing. So, for instance, when the UK variant came to India, we were very strongly monitoring all airports and somebody who had the UK variant were asked to stay at the airport for a certain number of days of quarantine. This is how airports of Hyderabad had done and the UK variant could not spread into the state. But at other airports, we missed this and the variant spread even to the villages in other states. Genome sequencing has been really helpful in building strategies and taking additional steps to contain the infection. Without it, we would really become blind in terms of information and characteristics of the virus.

On genome sequencing in India, Dr Mishra said that the country has been able to generate enough genomic information and has picked up variants over the past year. He said,

I would say that we are not doing too bad. We have been generating enough sequence information that we could pick the variants in time. What we need to work on now is how to process this information, how to share it and use this information so that it is effectively incorporated into our strategies. Any sequence information that is of value today will not remain useful after a few days or weeks. Had China informed about the spread of the virus much earlier when it started, the pandemic today would have been of a different kind. But they informed the rest of the world much later when the situation was already out of hands.

Experience Of Working On The Forefront Of Covid Research

On how being at the forefront of Covid research has changed his life, Dr Mishra, who along with his team was closely observing the coronavirus and its evolution said,

When we are looking at the problem and seeing the evolution of the problem unravelling in front of our eyes, it is life-changing in itself. The key thing was that the rules of the game were changing continuously as the virus was changing, we were learning more and more about the virus, and we had to work out new ways to tackle it. It is like a moving target which we are trying to chase. Whether it is diagnostic or prevention of the spread, or finding new ways of testing, developing new kinds of drugs, the fight against Covid has been really an unprecedented learning curve for us scientists. I must say that these were the fastest, most challenging one and a half years of my life.

While sharing about lessons learnt during the pandemic, he said,

We must not forget the implications of this crisis on the society and thus, each scientist, researcher, policymaker should strive to be ready to handle such situation without letting it get out of hand.

Also Read: Independence Day Special: Health And Well-Being Are Directly Connected To The Environment, Actor Dia Mirza Talks To NDTV

Working With The Government During The Pandemic

Working with the government has both privileges and constraints, said Dr Mishra. He said,

While working with the government, you may get disappointed because you are not getting things done as fast as you would like to because there are many factors and they need to be respected. There are some challenges like convincing the system and agencies about the new methods and new things. They have valid reasons to be careful and so it is important to follow rules and criteria and this sometimes gets frustrating because you feel that it is important to take faster actions. So, on some days, it can be stressful as there can be differences in priorities, thinking and everything may not fall in place in one go, but at the end of the day, there is just one common goal that we are all working on- to get out of this pandemic and that has been keeping us together.

He appreciated how the government has been able to bring multiple institutions and agencies together in this time of need.

Achievements And The Way Forward

Our scientific institutions have really risen to the occasion during the pandemic and every top institution in the county is really seriously involved in Covid research and various other services that are required for handling the Covid situation like testing, surveillance, modelling, trying for the new drugs, repurposing the drugs and lots of other things, said Dr Mishra.

He emphasised that there is a need of strengthening the scientific base in the country and make it future-ready in order to advance in terms of economy and innovation.

Acknowledging the role of young scientists in fighting the current pandemic, Dr Mishra said,

The way they worked hard and exhibited courage and concern for society has been a source of motivation and confidence for others. He asserted that it is the need of the hour that science gets much better support that it needs to meet the present needs and be future-ready by increasing state spending on science, research and education by several folds.

He said that the pandemic has forced the researchers to innovate new things.

Now we are looking at we can effectively help ourselves by innovating new things. Remember that when the pandemic started, each test was costing about Rs. 4,000- Rs. 5,000 and so few were available. Today, the cost of some of the tests are as low as less than Rs. 100 per test. Not only this, there was such a shortage of PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) kits at that time and now we have plenty. We also developed methods of air sampling and that was one the very early finding that the virus spreads more through the air than through the touch or contact, he said.

India’s Health Priorities On 74th Independence Day

Dr Mishra said the next wave seems to be certain in the country but the impact of it can be controlled with carefully designed strategies and implementation and behaviour of the people. He said,

There are a lot of things that we expect from the system like there should be environment surveillance, zoonotic surveillance but we also have to contribute as a society. We have to take care of this planet. There is a very fine balance in this whole ecosystem and we must not disturb that. We need to be responsible. For instance, wearing a mask is being civil because you are not just protecting yourself but are also saving others. How fast we can gain freedom from Covid depends on how much we can do to stop the virus from thriving. If we don’t do this, unfortunately, there will be nasty variants that will cause more waves. We must remember that these variants develop within our bodies themselves and not somewhere else and so it is important not to let the virus enter our bodies and thrive and multiply.

On the need of a separate policy in the country for tackling pandemics, he said a separate policy can help the country become technological ready with adequate healthcare infrastructure.

There are parasites all over different animals and they are living in a certain equilibrium. When parasites or infectious agents come to new hosts like humans, we are not prepared and if in some ways the parasite get used to spreading in us, then we get a new disease and if it is spreading fast then it can take the scale of a pandemic. So, we have to keep monitoring and surveying environmental samples and not disturb the environment, don’t catch or go in proximity with the animals which are part of the wildlife and we should restrict human economic activities within our domain and not let it spread beyond. So, those are things that need to be followed and, in some parts, it needs to be implemented more rigorously. So that is how we should have a policy separately for tackling pandemics in which environmental surveillance, technology readiness and self-sufficiency are the key ingredients.

Also Read: COVID Fighters: After Beating COVID-19 This 45-Year-Old Lab Technician Donates His Plasma

NDTV – Dettol Banega Swasth India campaign is an extension of the five-year-old Banega Swachh India initiative helmed by Campaign Ambassador Amitabh Bachchan. It aims to spread awareness about critical health issues facing the country. In wake of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the need for WASH (WaterSanitation and Hygiene) is reaffirmed as handwashing is one of the ways to prevent Coronavirus infection and other diseases. The campaign highlights the importance of nutrition and healthcare for women and children to prevent maternal and child mortality, fight malnutrition, stunting, wasting, anaemia and disease prevention through vaccines. Importance of programmes like Public Distribution System (PDS), Mid-day Meal Scheme, POSHAN Abhiyan and the role of Aganwadis and ASHA workers are also covered. Only a Swachh or clean India where toilets are used and open defecation free (ODF) status achieved as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2014, can eradicate diseases like diahorrea and become a Swasth or healthy India. The campaign will continue to cover issues like air pollutionwaste managementplastic banmanual scavenging and sanitation workers and menstrual hygiene

World

26,21,50,955Cases
22,29,25,306Active
3,40,18,299Recovered
52,07,350Deaths
Coronavirus has spread to 196 countries. The total confirmed cases worldwide are 26,21,50,955 and 52,07,350 have died; 22,29,25,306 are active cases and 3,40,18,299 have recovered as on November 30, 2021 at 3:50 am.

India

3,45,87,822 6,990Cases
1,00,5433,316Active
3,40,18,299 10,116Recovered
4,68,980 190Deaths
In India, there are 3,45,87,822 confirmed cases including 4,68,980 deaths. The number of active cases is 1,00,543 and 3,40,18,299 have recovered as on November 30, 2021 at 2:30 am.

State Details

State Cases Active Recovered Deaths
Maharashtra

66,34,980 536

11,525 338

64,82,493 853

1,40,962 21

Kerala

51,37,091 3,382

45,138 2,514

50,51,998 5,779

39,955 117

Karnataka

29,95,857 257

6,907 47

29,50,747 205

38,203 5

Tamil Nadu

27,26,197 730

8,291 46

26,81,434 767

36,472 9

Andhra Pradesh

20,72,725 101

2,102 38

20,56,184 138

14,439 1

Uttar Pradesh

17,10,387 5

86 3

16,87,391 2

22,910

West Bengal

16,15,378 511

7,733 71

15,88,172 571

19,473 11

Delhi

14,40,900 34

285 3

14,15,517 36

25,098 1

Odisha

10,48,880 197

2,165 26

10,38,306 221

8,409 2

Chhattisgarh

10,06,779 16

318 12

9,92,868 28

13,593

Rajasthan

9,54,770 12

187 12

9,45,628 24

8,955

Gujarat

8,27,435 27

262 22

8,17,081 49

10,092

Madhya Pradesh

7,93,150 12

126 4

7,82,496 8

10,528

Haryana

7,71,692 16

165 3

7,61,473 19

10,054

Bihar

7,26,219 2

39 2

7,16,517 4

9,663

Telangana

6,75,798 184

3,581 46

6,68,227 137

3,990 1

Assam

6,16,708 140

2,595 96

6,08,015 230

6,098 6

Punjab

6,03,258 18

329 11

5,86,330 26

16,599 3

Jharkhand

3,49,232 11

95 2

3,43,997 9

5,140

Uttarakhand

3,44,227 8

132 44

3,36,687 51

7,408 1

Jammu And Kashmir

3,36,681 150

1,626 32

3,30,579 181

4,476 1

Himachal Pradesh

2,27,093 90

824 29

2,22,422 61

3,847

Goa

1,78,890 24

276 3

1,75,230 19

3,384 2

Mizoram

1,34,810 437

3,805 95

1,30,512 531

493 1

Puducherry

1,28,893 12

296 16

1,26,725 28

1,872

Manipur

1,25,169 17

655 30

1,22,539 43

1,975 4

Tripura

84,791 4

78 8

83,890 10

823 2

Meghalaya

84,461 17

285 16

82,704 32

1,472 1

Chandigarh

65,456 8

58 4

64,578 4

820

Arunachal Pradesh

55,273 4

35 2

54,958 2

280

Sikkim

32,233 5

121 6

31,709 11

403

Nagaland

32,109 9

140 5

31,273 4

696

Ladakh

21,540 12

250 18

21,076 29

214 1

Dadra And Nagar Haveli

10,683

1 0

10,678

4

Lakshadweep

10,394

24 4

10,319 4

51

Andaman And Nicobar Islands

7,683 2

8 2

7,546

129

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