New Delhi: Global net-migration patterns are more strongly linked with socio-economic factors, not climate change as is generally thought by public, according to new research published in the journal Nature Human Behaviour. Providing a new, high-resolution dataset of net-migration over the past two decades (2000-19), the study said it made it possible to answer questions that cannot be addressed with coarser data, such as national averages. The study included researchers from Aalto University, Finland, and the University of Bologna, Italy.
The team combined birth and death rates with overall population growth to estimate net migration. The role of socio-economics and climate were incorporated through the Human Development Index (HDI) and the aridity index.
High levels of emigration or out-migration were found in regions in the middle of the scale in both HDI and aridity, such as areas in Central America, northeast Brazil, Central Africa and southeast Asia.
Venla Niva, a postdoctoral researcher at Aalto University and the study’s lead author, said,
It’s not the poorest of the poor who are fleeing environmental disasters or environmental changes. Migration is an adaptation method used by people who have the capacity to move.
By the same logic, areas with a high HDI were seen to experience positive net-migration, or in-migration, regardless of their climate condition.
For example, regions in the Arabian Peninsula, North America, Australia, and the North Mediterranean were net receivers despite their aridity, the study said.
Decision-makers should pay attention to this. Rather than focusing solely on border closures and combating migration, we should work to support and empower individuals in economically disadvantaged countries.
Matti Kummu, associate professor of global water and food issues at Aalto and senior author of the study, said,
That would help reduce the drivers that compel people to migrate in search of better opportunities.
The granularity of the new dataset reveals complexities in migration patterns that are hidden when national data is used, the researchers said.
Mr Kummu stated,
In France and Italy, for example, there are really interesting differences between north and south, and in Spain, there’s an east-west difference. There are so many patterns that national experts could look into, and of course, the reasons behind them might be different for each country.
Unexpected patterns also showed up in urban-rural migration, they said, which dispels the common belief that urban areas are pulling the people from the rural areas.
Mr Kummu said,
There are a lot of places for example in Europe where the opposite is true.
Migration from cities to rural areas was also observed in parts of Indonesia, Congo, Venezuela, and Pakistan.
Ms Niva said,
Overall, migration is more complex than people tend to think. Our findings contribute to the discussion of where and how migration is happening – it’s not actually a Euro-centric phenomenon, because most migration happens elsewhere in the world. They don’t really match the narrative that’s repeated by the public about climate-induced migration. When you look at the different factors together, the analysis shows that human development factors are more important drivers than climate.
The new dataset, which the researchers produced by starting with sub-national death and birth ratios and scaling them down to 10-kilometre resolution, is openly available and can be easily explored through an online interactive map, they said.
(This story has not been edited by NDTV staff and is published from a syndicated feed.)
NDTV – Dettol have been working towards a clean and healthy India since 2014 via the Banega Swachh India initiative, which is helmed by Campaign Ambassador Amitabh Bachchan. The campaign aims to highlight the inter-dependency of humans and the environment, and of humans on one another with the focus on One Health, One Planet, One Future – Leaving No One Behind. It stresses on the need to take care of, and consider, everyone’s health in India – especially vulnerable communities – theLGBTQ population,indigenous people, India’s different tribes, ethnic and linguistic minorities, people with disabilities, migrants, geographically remote populations, gender and sexual minorities. In wake of the currentCOVID-19 pandemic, the need for WASH (Water,SanitationandHygiene) is reaffirmed as handwashing is one of the ways to prevent Coronavirus infection and other diseases. The campaign will continue to raise awareness on the same along with focussing on the importance of nutrition and healthcare for women and children, fightmalnutrition, mental wellbeing, self care, science and health,adolescent health & gender awareness. Along with the health of people, the campaign has realised the need to also take care of the health of the eco-system. Our environment is fragile due to human activity, which is not only over-exploiting available resources, but also generating immense pollution as a result of using and extracting those resources. The imbalance has also led to immense biodiversity loss that has caused one of the biggest threats to human survival – climate change. It has now been described as a “code red for humanity.” The campaign will continue to cover issues likeair pollution,waste management,plastic ban,manual scavengingand sanitation workers andmenstrual hygiene. Banega Swasth India will also be taking forward the dream of Swasth Bharat, the campaign feels that only a Swachh or clean India wheretoiletsare used andopen defecation free (ODF)status achieved as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan launched byPrime Minister Narendra Modiin 2014, can eradicate diseases like diahorrea and the country can become a Swasth or healthy India.