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Fight Against Coronavirus: Where Are We In The COVID-19 Vaccine Race?

Here is what we know about the race to deliver vaccines to help end the coronavirus pandemic that has claimed more than 1.34 million lives worldwide

Fight Against Coronavirus: Where Are We In The COVID-19 Vaccine Race?
Highlights
  • AstraZeneca said its interim analysis was based on 131 infections
  • WHO recommends at least 70 per cent efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in trials
  • Russia gave Sputnik V vaccine to 10,000 members of the general population

Reuters: Drugmakers and research centres around the world are working on COVID-19 vaccines, with large globaltrials of several of the candidates involving tens of thousands of participants well underway. The following is what we know about the race to deliver vaccines to help end the coronavirus pandemic that has claimed more than 1.34 million lives worldwide:

Also Read: AstraZeneca COVID-19 Vaccine Can Be 90 Per Cent Effective, Results Show

Who is furthest along?

U.S. drugmaker Pfizer Inc and German partner BioNTech SE released final late-stage trial data on Nov. 18 that showed their shot was 95% effective at stopping COVID-19, the highest efficacy rate so far. The companies are the first to publish final Phase III efficacy and safety data and plan to apply for an emergency use authorization (EUA) in the United States within days. On November 16, another U.S. pharmaceutical company, Moderna Inc, released interim data showing that its vaccine worked in a large, late-stage clinical trial with a 94.5 per cent efficacy rate.
Interim late-stage trial results for Russia’s Sputnik V vaccine published on November 11 showed the shot is 92 per cent effective. AstraZeneca said on Monday (November 23) its vaccine for the novel coronavirus, developed by Oxford University, could be around 90 per cent effective without any serious side effects. Johnson & Johnson says it is on track to deliver data this year.

What happens in these trials?

The companies are testing their vaccines against a placebo -typically saline solution – in healthy volunteers to see if the rate of COVID-19 infection among those who got the vaccine is significantly lower than in those who received the dummy shot.

What were pharma companies waiting for to release data?

The trials rely on subjects becoming naturally infected with the coronavirus, so how long it takes to generate results largely depends on how pervasive the virus is where trials are being conducted. Each drugmaker has targeted a specific number of infections to trigger a first analysis of their data. Early in the trials, infection rates were low. With a surge in infections around the globe in October and November, trial participants became infected more quickly. Pfizer’s final results were based on 170 cases within its trial involving more than 43,000 participants.
Moderna conducted its interim analysis after 95 participants developed COVID-19, while Russia’s examination was conducted after 20 volunteers developed the disease. AstraZeneca said its interim analysis was based on 131 infections among participants who received the vaccine and those in a control group who were given an established meningitis shot.

Also Read: Pfizer, BioNtech To Submit To FDA For Emergency Use Authorisation For Their COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate

How well are the vaccines supposed to work?

The World Health Organization ideally wants to see at least7 0 per cent efficacy in trials. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration wants at least 50% – which means there must be at least twice asmany infections among volunteers who received a placebo as among those in the vaccine group. The European Medicines Agency has said it may accept a lower efficacy level.

When will regulators rule on safety and efficacy?

Pfizer/BioNTech plan to submit an EUA application in the United States within days. Moderna aims to file an application in the coming weeks once it has the two months of safety data on half the trial participants, as required by the U.S. Food andDrug Administration. That should happen in the second half of November. That means an FDA decision is unlikely before December. AstraZeneca said on Monday it will immediately prepare regulatory submission of the data to authorities around the world that have a framework in place for conditional or early approval. Regulators for Europe, the United Kingdom and Canada are considering data as it becomes available. It is not clear when companies will submit efficacy data or when the agencies would make a decision.

Could these be the first widely available coronavirus vaccines?

Yes, although China launched an emergency use programme in July aimed at essential workers and others at high risk of infection that has vaccinated hundreds of thousands of people. At least four Chinese vaccines are far along including those from China National Biotec Group (CNBG), CanSinoBiologics and Sinovac Biotech. Sinovac said on Nov. 18 that mid-stage trial results showed its CoronaVac vaccine triggered a quick immune response but the level of antibodies produced was lower than in people who hadrecovered from the disease. CNBG has said it expects early trial data as soon as November. Russia has also given the Sputnik V vaccine developed by the Gamaleya Institute to 10,000 members of the general population considered at high risk of contracting the virus.

Also Read: Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine May Protect Against COVID-19, Says Study

(Except for the headline, this story has not been edited by NDTV staff and is published from a syndicated feed.)

NDTV – Dettol Banega Swasth India campaign is an extension of the five-year-old Banega Swachh India initiative helmed by Campaign Ambassador Amitabh Bachchan. It aims to spread awareness about critical health issues facing the country. In wake of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the need for WASH (WaterSanitation and Hygiene) is reaffirmed as handwashing is one of the ways to prevent Coronavirus infection and other diseases. The campaign highlights the importance of nutrition and healthcare for women and children to prevent maternal and child mortality, fight malnutrition, stunting, wasting, anaemia and disease prevention through vaccines. Importance of programmes like Public Distribution System (PDS), Mid-day Meal Scheme, POSHAN Abhiyan and the role of Aganwadis and ASHA workers are also covered. Only a Swachh or clean India where toilets are used and open defecation free (ODF) status achieved as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2014, can eradicate diseases like diahorrea and become a Swasth or healthy India. The campaign will continue to cover issues like air pollutionwaste managementplastic banmanual scavenging and sanitation workers and menstrual hygiene

World

24,00,62,413Cases
20,17,73,183Active
3,33,99,961Recovered
48,89,269Deaths
Coronavirus has spread to 195 countries. The total confirmed cases worldwide are 24,00,62,413 and 48,89,269 have died; 20,17,73,183 are active cases and 3,33,99,961 have recovered as on October 16, 2021 at 4:08 am.

India

3,40,53,573 15,981Cases
2,01,6322,046Active
3,33,99,961 17,861Recovered
4,51,980 166Deaths
In India, there are 3,40,53,573 confirmed cases including 4,51,980 deaths. The number of active cases is 2,01,632 and 3,33,99,961 have recovered as on October 16, 2021 at 2:30 am.

State Details

State Cases Active Recovered Deaths
Maharashtra

65,88,429 2,149

33,379 222

64,15,316 1,898

1,39,734 29

Kerala

48,38,811 8,867

95,349 1,072

47,16,728 9,872

26,734 67

Karnataka

29,82,869 470

9,700 93

29,35,238 368

37,931 9

Tamil Nadu

26,84,641 1,245

15,238 213

26,33,534 1,442

35,869 16

Andhra Pradesh

20,59,708 586

6,453 135

20,38,960 712

14,295 9

Uttar Pradesh

17,10,014 6

133 2

16,86,984 8

22,897

West Bengal

15,79,463 451

7,513 63

15,52,997 506

18,953 8

Delhi

14,39,337 26

327 10

14,13,921 36

25,089

Odisha

10,34,276 467

4,817 73

10,21,180 535

8,279 5

Chhattisgarh

10,05,624 10

197 6

9,91,857 16

13,570

Rajasthan

9,54,383 1

40 2

9,45,389 3

8,954

Gujarat

8,26,258 14

212 3

8,15,960 17

10,086

Madhya Pradesh

7,92,675 6

106 5

7,82,046 11

10,523

Haryana

7,71,049 14

116 11

7,60,884 3

10,049

Bihar

7,26,021 5

46 4

7,16,314 1

9,661

Telangana

6,68,722 104

4,056 115

6,60,730 218

3,936 1

Assam

6,05,944 97

3,458 188

5,96,547 284

5,939 1

Punjab

6,01,992 21

228 6

5,85,224 25

16,540 2

Jharkhand

3,48,415 9

130 0

3,43,150 9

5,135

Uttarakhand

3,43,739 10

179 4

3,36,163 6

7,397

Jammu And Kashmir

3,30,885 51

895 40

3,25,564 91

4,426

Himachal Pradesh

2,21,203 90

1,361 26

2,16,125 114

3,717 2

Goa

1,77,410 54

648 31

1,73,423 81

3,339 4

Puducherry

1,27,296 37

611 36

1,24,836 73

1,849

Manipur

1,22,545 113

1,444 0

1,19,208 109

1,893 4

Mizoram

1,11,651 932

13,316 285

97,955 1,211

380 6

Tripura

84,299 4

102 8

83,381 12

816

Meghalaya

82,815 81

893 1

80,490 79

1,432 1

Chandigarh

65,297 2

30 2

64,447 4

820

Arunachal Pradesh

54,964 6

183 19

54,501 25

280

Sikkim

31,739 17

189 35

31,159 51

391 1

Nagaland

31,547 31

228 2

30,645 32

674 1

Ladakh

20,871 4

42 2

20,621 6

208

Dadra And Nagar Haveli

10,675

3 0

10,668

4

Lakshadweep

10,365

1 1

10,313 1

51

Andaman And Nicobar Islands

7,641 1

9 1

7,503 2

129

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