Adolescent Sexual Health: Parents, Teachers Need To Break The Cycle Of Silence Around Sex And Sexuality, Say Experts

Adolescent Sexual Health: Parents, Teachers Need To Break The Cycle Of Silence Around Sex And Sexuality, Say Experts

When it comes to sexuality and sexual health, teenagers should be made equipped with information they need to navigate through the most natural aspect of human life, say experts
Swasth India
- in Swasth India
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Adolescent Sexual Health: Parents, Teachers Need To Break The Cycle Of Silence Around Sex And Sexuality, Say ExpertsParents, teachers and other trusted adults need to have more open conversations about healthy sexuality with adolescents, say experts
Highlights
  • Early sex education may prevent teen pregnancies: Experts
  • Elders need to ensure access to sexual healthcare to teenagers: Doctor
  • Gender And Consent Need To Be Taught During Early Childhood Itself: Experts

New Delhi: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), sexual health is a state of physical, emotional, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality. It further says that sexual health is not merely about diseases but requires a positive and respectful approach to sexuality and sexual relationships, as well as the possibility of having pleasurable and safe sexual experiences, free of coercion, discrimination and violence. However, in many societies, sexual health is still a very confidential topic. When it comes to children and teenagers, talking about sexuality and sexual health is nothing less than a taboo.

Also Read: Access To Sanitary Napkins Getting Worse During The COVID-19 Lockdown

Dr Veena Aggarwal, Gynaecologist, Consultant Women’s Health, Medtalks.in says that sexuality in children is natural and it is normal for them to be curious about sex and their sexual organs. She said,

Given the highly conservative attitudes towards sexual behaviour in India, adolescent sexual and reproductive health has been overlooked historically. Most children are not even taught the anatomically correct names for body parts. But, studies have shown that even in our traditional society, both rural and urban adolescents are engaging themselves in sexual activities. So why are we still keeping them ill-informed about the most natural aspect of life?

She further said that the low social and economic status of women and girls in the country and high rates of illiteracy and ignorance about sex among them make them particularly vulnerable to abuse, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and Reproductive Tract Infections (RTIs).

According to data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS)- 4, the average age at which women in India have their first sex encounter is lower than that for men. The data shows, men are most likely to have had their first sexual intercourse at the age of 20-24, while for women, the peak age of first sex is at 15-19 years. The responses of men and women in the age group 25-49 years reveal that 11 per cent of women in this age group had sex before the age of 15 years while only 1 per cent of men in this age group had sexual intercourse before the age of 15. NFHS-4 report suggests that this difference is primarily on account of the difference in the ages at which they tend to get married. Thus, women tend to have sex at an earlier age because they get married at a younger age, as per NHFS-4.

Radhika Sharma, Director, Jeevan Ashram Sanstha (JAS) who has been working on raising awareness among teenagers on sexual health since last 10 years, highlighted that many men even as adults feel awkward talking about periods or female hygiene and many women feel ashamed about their bodies and bodily functions almost all of their lives. She added that both girls and boys face sexual and reproductive health issues as teenagers and as adults due to the stigma attached to it, they hesitate from seeking help. She said that sex education is a tool that can be used to ensure safe and healthy life for girls and boys.

Talking about the importance of sex education, Ms. Sharma said that while girls still get some information from their mothers during puberty and before marriage, boys don’t have anyone to get their queries answered.

Also Read: COVID-19 Majorly Impacted Women Health, Need Planning And Recovery Efforts: Population Foundation Of India

Education About Sex And Sexual Health Should Go Beyond Preaching Abstinence: Experts

According to Dr. Aggarwal, parents and children should have mutually respectful dialogues about sex and equip them with the knowledge to make informed and responsible decisions on the matters of sexuality. She said,

It can feel like an emotional rollercoaster at first, but being respectful and frank with children and teenagers could go a long way when it comes to the ‘Bird and Bees’ talk. It is the responsibility of the trusted adults to teach children about personal safety and how they can protect themselves from abuse and exploitation. Instead of telling them that sex is bad, empower them with understanding about their and their partner’s safety and about consequences of their actions. The teenagers should be counselled on how to manage peer influence because this is the age when their self-esteem is fragile and their ‘image’ is everything to them.

Sex Education May Prevent Teen Pregnancy

According to a report published by WHO in December 2018, in developing countries, approximately 16 million girls aged 15-19 years and 2.5 million girls under the age of 16 give birth each year. It also says that annually, nearly 3.9 million girls aged 15-19 years undergo unsafe abortions that ultimately end their lives. An adolescent mother (aged 10-19 years) faces a higher risk of various kinds of complications and infections than those in the age of 20 years and above, says WHO.

Dr. Aggarwal asserts that imparting information about sex to teenagers well before their first sexual encounter would help ensure sexual health of the young women and men and may prevent teen pregnancy. She said,

Studies have shown that early, frank and age-appropriate conversations about safe sex can result in fewer unwanted pregnancies. Boys and girls should be explained about early child bearing, safe abortions and how teenage pregnancy affects themselves, their families and their futures.

Access To Sexual Healthcare And Sexually Transmitted Disease

Ms. Sharma highlighted that teenagers, especially in rural areas and in families with low income, lack the access to sexual healthcare. Due to lack of information, teenagers are usually more concerned about pregnancy than Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and do not practice safe sex, she said. She further added that if, in case they do get an infection, fear and stigma among teenagers may result in delays in seeking treatment for STDs.

According to Srijana Bagaria, Co-founder, Pee Safe, in the recent years, the teenagers are increasingly becoming prey to STDs and HIV/AIDS.

Dr. Aggarwal said that there is ample evidence from various researches to support the fact that sex education and awareness programmes have significantly reduced HIV risk in adolescents. She said,

According to the International Institute of Population Science data base, 45 per cent of women in India marry before 18 years of age and 22 per cent of them give birth to their first child even before they attain the legal age for marriage. The same report also shows that modern contraceptive usage is abysmally low ranging from a mere 12 per cent in Delhi to 2 per cent in Bihar in the age group of 15-19 years. This is further complicated by the rising cases of HIV/AIDS with the adolescent and young population comprising 34 per cent of the total AIDS burden. Poor infrastructure and lack of human resources to deal with adolescent specific reproductive health issues make the issue of sex education not only relevant but also important from a human rights perspective.

Also Read: Expert Suggests Five Simple Ways That Can Help Take Care Of Your Mental Health Amid COVID-19

Sexting And Interaction With Strangers Online

Exchanging explicit pictures with people is becoming an increasingly common phenomenon among teenagers, said Dr. Aggarwal. Therefore, lessons on cyber safety are very important, she said. She further added that children must use the internet under the supervision of an adult and should be taught not to engage with strangers online. She said,

Teenagers should be equipped with the information about online risks and dangers of social networking. They should practise sound judgement both online and offline. IT is important for their physical as well as mental health.

Gender And Consent Need To Be Taught During Early Childhood Itself

Parents and teachers should discuss consent with the children from a very young age, said Dr. Aggarwal. She further said that children from very young age should be taught to respect the word ‘no’ and use it without hesitation when they need to use it themselves. She further said,

Children from the age of 2 years should be taught about what parts of their body need to be kept private and to differentiate between good touch and bad touch.

She further said that children should be taught about respecting boundaries and about asking for permission.
Gender, is another concept that cannot be missed and needs to be explained to the youngsters from the very beginning, said Ms. Sharma. She said,

They should be taught about inclusiveness, body positivity and celebrating diversity. About gender identity, gender sensitivity and LGBTQ+ – lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersexual, asexual and others on the spectrum.

Ms. Bagaria said that all parents and teachers should also be provided with gender-sensitive trainings and lessons on sexuality and sexual health so that they can be armed with the right knowledge that they can further impart to their children and teenagers, as per their age. She said,

Accept that your adolescents are discovering a whole new world. Empower them with right information and let them know that you are there when they need you.

Also Read: Opinion: Thinking Beyond The First 1000 Days Of Life For Maternal And Child Nutrition

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World

9,87,19,695Cases
4,21,73,757Active
5,44,25,394Recovered
21,20,544Deaths
Coronavirus has spread to 192 countries. The total confirmed cases worldwide are 9,87,19,695 and 21,20,544 have died; 4,21,73,757 are active cases and 5,44,25,394 have recovered as on January 24, 2021 at 4:12 am.

India

1,06,54,533 14849Cases
1,84,408 -1254Active
1,03,16,786 15948Recovered
1,53,339 155Deaths
In India, there are 1,06,54,533 confirmed cases including 1,53,339 deaths. The number of active cases is 1,84,408 and 1,03,16,786 have recovered as on January 24, 2021 at 2:30 am.

State & District Details

State Cases Active Recovered Deaths
DistrictCases
Mumbai45,478
Thane13,660
Pune9,920
Mumbai Suburban5,363
Aurangabad1,974
Nashik1,575
Raigad1,462
Palghar1,421
Solapur1,291
Jalgaon1,039
Akola757
Nagpur692
Kolhapur646
Satara629
Ratnagiri350
Amravati291
Dhule228
Hingoli208
Jalna201
Ahmednagar190
Nanded176
Yavatmal150
Sangli145
Latur139
Osmanabad125
Sindhudurg114
Buldhana88
Parbhani78
gondia69
Beed54
Nandurbar42
Gadchiroli42
Bhandara41
Chandrapur32
Washim13
Wardha11

20,06,354 2,697

45,093 1,053

19,10,521 3,694

50,740 56

DistrictCases
Udupi1,176
Kalaburagi669
Yadgir538
Bengaluru Urban529
Raichur369
Mandya346
Belagavi337
Bidar219
Hassan205
Davangere204
Vijayapura201
Dakshina Kannada179
Chikkaballapura149
Mysuru107
Bagalkote103
Uttara Kannada95
Shivamogga67
Dharwad61
Ballari60
Gadag45
Bengaluru Rural40
Tumakuru36
Kolar29
Haveri24
Chikkamagaluru19
Chitradurga14
Koppal5
Kodagu4
Ramanagara3
Chamarajanagara0

9,35,478 902

7,361 357

9,15,924 542

12,193 3

DistrictCases
Kurnool795
Krishna557
Guntur511
Anantapur428
East Godavari356
Chittoor319
Sri Potti Sriramulu Nell*296
Y.S.R.205
West Godavari199
Srikakulam183
Prakasam104
Visakhapatnam103
Vizianagaram23

8,86,852 158

1,473 15

8,78,232 172

7,147 1

DistrictCases
Kannur357
Kasaragod333
Palakkad224
Malappuram119
Kollam118
Thrissur106
Thiruvananthapuram104
Pathanamthitta98
Kozhikode90
Alappuzha76
Kottayam73
Ernakulam60
Idukki40
Wayanad36

8,84,242 6,960

72,278 1,654

8,08,377 5,283

3,587 23

DistrictCases
Chennai23,324
Chengalpattu1,314
Thiruvallur774
Villupuram509
Kanchipuram503
Tiruvannamalai496
Cuddalore477
Ariyalur444
Tirunelveli433
Tuticorin333
Kallakurichi324
Madurai322
Salem258
Coimbatore188
Virudhunagar185
Dindigul175
Perambalur133
Ranipet133
Thanjavur130
Theni129
Tiruchirappalli119
Ramanathapuram119
Tiruppur116
Kanniyakumari110
Tenkasi103
Nagapattinam99
Karur88
Namakkal83
Erode75
Vellore71
Thiruvarur67
Pudukkottai53
Sivaganga46
Tirupathur45
Krishnagiri43
The Nilgiris17
Dharmapuri15

8,34,171 586

4,984 89

8,16,878 673

12,309 2

DistrictCases
North West5,463
Central4,817
West4,768
New Delhi3,405
North3,059
East2,472
South East2,446
South West2,391
South2,329
North East1,914
Shahdara1,580

6,33,739 197

1,880 180

6,21,060 367

10,799 10

DistrictCases
Gautam Buddha Nagar1,119
Agra933
Ghaziabad794
Meerut504
Lucknow386
Saharanpur298
Kanpur Nagar286
Moradabad252
Varanasi243
Hapur225
Aligarh215
Basti214
Amethi206
Rampur203
Jaunpur194
Firozabad190
Barabanki168
Gorakhpur166
Bulandshahr166
Siddharth Nagar159
Ghazipur159
Bijnor157
Deoria143
Azamgarh138
Sant Kabeer Nagar132
Mathura129
Ayodhya120
Muzaffarnagar117
Sambhal116
Sultanpur97
Ambedkar Nagar92
Maharajganj85
Amroha80
Rae Bareli78
Bahraich73
Kheri72
Kannauj69
Baghpat68
Kushi Nagar67
Bhadohi60
Ballia60
Gonda59
Etah52
Hardoi49
Balrampur49
Mau48
Mainpuri46
Etawah46
Hathras43
Unnao42
Jalaun41
Jhansi41
Shamli40
Chandauli38
Auraiya37
Farrukhabad36
Sitapur32
Prayagraj30
Banda27
Shahjahanpur25
Shravasti23
Budaun23
Mirzapur22
Bareilly17
Kasganj16
Pratapgarh15
Pilibhit15
Sonbhadra10
Kaushambi6
Kanpur Dehat4
Chitrakoot4
Lalitpur3
Hamirpur3
Mahoba3
Fatehpur3

5,98,445 319

7,330 198

5,82,506 513

8,609 4

DistrictCases
Kolkata2,777
Howrah1,435
24 Paraganas North1,031
Hooghly604
24 Paraganas South281
Maldah235
Dinajpur Uttar216
Coochbehar210
Birbhum206
Medinipur West159
Medinipur East153
Nadia139
Purba Bardhaman130
Murshidabad125
Bankura116
Darjeeling97
Jalpaiguri88
Paschim Bardhaman70
Purulia66
Dinajpur Dakshin50
Alipurduar39
Kalimpong18
Jhargram9

5,67,714 410

6,396 74

5,51,211 474

10,107 10

DistrictCases
Ganjam581
Jajapur322
Khordha238
Baleshwar190
Kendrapara164
Cuttack155
Bhadrak137
Balangir129
Puri103
Sundargarh102
Jagatsinghapur91
Nayagarh86
Mayurbhanj73
Nuapada69
Gajapati61
Dhenkanal36
Boudh34
Kendujhar34
Deogarh33
Kalahandi33
Sonepur29
Kandhamal28
Anugul26
Malkangiri20
Bargarh16
Koraput16
Sambalpur16
Jharsuguda8
Nabarangpur2
Rayagada2

3,34,150 130

1,284 76

3,30,962 205

1,904 1

DistrictCases
Jaipur2,177
Jodhpur1,748
Udaipur724
Bharatpur563
Kota503
Nagaur500
Ajmer379
Dungarpur374
Pali352
Jhalawar329
Bhilwara250
Sikar231
Chittorgarh188
Tonk171
Jalore164
Rajsamand140
Sirohi130
Bikaner112
Banswara91
Alwar90
Churu81
Jhunjhunu64
Dausa61
Dholpur60
Baran59
Jaisalmer53
Barmer34
Hanumangarh31
SawaiMadhopur26
Karauli17
Pratapgarh14
Ganganagar8
Bundi5

3,16,485 203

3,448 271

3,10,279 472

2,758 2

DistrictCases
Bilaspur100
Korba100
Mungeli87
Baloda Bazar85
Jashpur77
Janjgir-Champa56
Mahasamund54
Rajnandgaon52
Kabirdham52
Raigarh47
Raipur46
Balod41
Korea39
Durg31
Bemetara21
Kanker19
Balrampur17
Surguja14
Gariyaband10
Surajpur9
Dhamtari6
Bijapur2
Bastar2
Dantewada0
Kondagaon0
Narayanpur0
Sukma0

2,96,326 377

5,040 268

2,87,677 637

3,609 8

DistrictCases
Hyderabad2,475
Ranga Reddy183
Suryapet87
Jagitial77
Nizamabad76
MedchalMalkajgiri75
Mancherial43
YadadriBhuvanagiri40
Jogulamba Gadwal40
Vikarabad40
Nalgonda33
Warangal Urban32
Mahabubnagar30
Sangareddy26
Khammam26
Adilabad22
Nirmal21
Karimnagar17
RajannaSircilla16
Medak11
Kamareddy11
Mahabubabad10
Jayashankar Bhupalapally9
Nagarkurnool8
Kumuram Bheem Asifabad8
Jangoan8
Siddipet7
Peddapalli5
Bhadradri Kothagudem5
Warangal Rural4
Mulugu3
Narayanpet3
Wanaparthy1

2,93,253 197

3,389 180

2,88,275 376

1,589 1

DistrictCases
Gurugram2,950
Faridabad867
Sonipat404
Rohtak145
Palwal120
Jhajjar114
Karnal104
Hisar98
Ambala93
Panipat78
Nuh68
Bhiwani60
Rewari56
Kurukshetra55
Sirsa50
Kaithal48
Mahendragarh47
CharkiDadri43
Panchkula39
Fatehabad38
Jind38
Yamunanagar19

2,67,075 136

1,559 26

2,62,507 158

3,009 4

DistrictCases
Ahmadabad17,125
Surat2,311
Vadodara1,555
Gandhinagar410
Mahesana159
Banas Kantha147
Bhavnagar146
Rajkot135
Arvalli134
Mahisagar125
Anand107
PanchMahals107
Patan105
SabarKantha101
Kachchh99
Kheda98
Jamnagar63
Bharuch56
Botad55
Surendranagar55
Valsad47
GirSomnath45
Dohad43
Chhotaudepur37
Naysari35
Junagadh31
Narmada25
DevbhumiDwarka22
Amreli16
Porbandar11
Tapi6
Dang5
Morbi4

2,58,687 423

4,960 280

2,49,352 702

4,375 1

DistrictCases
Patna279
Bhagalpur266
Rohtas256
Khagaria253
Begusarai243
Madhubani199
Munger188
Jehanabad178
Katihar175
Darbhanga143
Samastipur139
Siwan139
PurbiChamparan138
Purnia135
Banka134
Buxar134
Nalanda123
Gopalganj123
Nawada122
Sheikhpura118
Gaya115
Kaimur (bhabua)105
Bhojpur103
Saran101
Muzaffarpur96
Saharsa88
Supaul87
Vaishali87
Madhepura82
Kishanganj75
Aurangabad75
Sitamarhi73
Lakhisarai72
Araria68
Pashchim Champaran57
Arwal52
Jamui47
Sheohar20

2,58,638 125

2,599 83

2,54,563 204

1,476 4

DistrictCases
Indore3,839
Bhopal1,880
Ujjain799
Burhanpur351
Neemuch319
Jabalpur276
East Nimar266
Sagar228
Gwalior211
Khargone196
Dewas140
Dhar132
Mandsaur112
Morena109
Bhind87
Raisen71
Barwani60
Ratlam51
Rewa39
Shajapur39
Hoshangabad37
Vidisha37
Chhatarpur35
Betul35
Rajgarh31
Dindori29
Sheopur26
Damoh26
Satna24
Anuppur22
Panna20
Tikamgarh18
Sidhi17
Narsinghpur17
Chhindwara16
Agar Malwa15
Mandla15
Shivpuri15
Jhabua14
Shandol14
Singrauli13
Ashoknagar13
Datia12
Sehore12
Umaria10
Balaghat9
Guna8
Harda4
Alirajpur3
Katni3
Seoni2
Niwari0

2,53,405 291

4,310 169

2,45,309 454

3,786 6

DistrictCases
Kamrup Metro276
Golaghat203
Nagaon143
Hojai89
Dima Hasao86
Karimganj85
Tinsukia84
Cachar80
Dibrugarh61
Hailakandi57
Lakhimpur57
Marigaon50
Dhemaji47
Kamrup42
Kokrajhar37
Dhubri30
Charaideo29
Barpeta28
Udalguri28
Sonitpur27
Jorhat24
Nalbari23
Darrang20
Sivasagar20
Goalpara19
Biswanath16
Baksa14
KarbiAnglong13
Bongaigaon12
Chirang6
West KarbiAnglong5
South SalmaraMancachar4
Majuli2

2,16,976 19

2,407 75

2,13,492 94

1,077

DistrictCases
Amritsar485
Jalandhar297
Ludhiana293
Tarn Taran163
Gurdaspur154
Hoshiarpur140
S.A.S Nagar137
Patiala132
Sangrur107
Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar (Nawanshahr)99
Pathankot86
Rupnagar (Ropar)74
Faridkot74
Sri Muktsar Sahib71
Moga65
Bathinda60
Fatehgarh Sahib57
Fazilka53
Firozepur50
Kapurthala44
Mansa31
Barnala25

1,71,733 211

2,293 31

1,63,887 232

5,553 10

DistrictCases
Anantnag395
Srinagar300
Kulgam295
Baramulla271
Shopian255
Kupwara231
Bandipora175
Udhampur155
Ramban151
Jammu138
Budgam110
Pulwama108
Kathua53
Rajouri39
Ganderbal37
Poonch35
Doda27
Reasi26
Samba25
Kishtwar10
Mirpur0
Muzaffarabad0

1,23,946 94

1,103 5

1,20,914 88

1,929 1

DistrictCases
East Singhbum170
Ranchi148
Hazaribagh110
Garhwa80
Ramgarh75
Koderma58
Simdega48
Dhanbad32
Gumla28
Palamu27
West Singhbhum21
SaraikelaKharsawan20
Giridih19
Bokaro16
Latehar14
Khunti10
Lohardaga8
Deoghar5
Dumka5
Pakur4
Jamtara2
Godda2
Chatra1
Sahebganj0

1,18,232 78

878 100

1,16,293 177

1,061 1

DistrictCases
Dehradun370
Nainital323
Tehri Garhwal110
Haridwar94
Udam Singh Nagar83
Almora71
Champawat45
Pithoragarh43
Chamoli36
PauriGarhwal36
Bageshwar31
Rudraprayag30
Uttar Kashi24

95,586 122

1,733 62

92,224 184

1,629

DistrictCases
Hamirpur117
Kangra105
Una41
Solan32
Chamba29
Bilaspur21
Mandi21
Sirmaur11
Shimla10
Kullu4
Kinnaur2
Lahaul And Spiti0

57,189 27

469 47

55,749 73

971 1

DistrictCases
South Goa69
North Goa57

52,867 85

873 19

51,233 63

761 3

DistrictCases
Pondicherry111
Mahe4
Karaikal2
Yanam0

38,830 36

302 8

37,884 27

644 1

DistrictCases
Dhalai196
Sepahijala174
Gomati74
South Tripura53
Unakoti49
West Tripura45
Khowai24
North Tripura14

33,345 1

35 1

32,919

391

DistrictCases
Churachandpur32
Kangpokpi26
Imphal West21
Thoubal18
Imphal East10
Tengnoupal9
Bishnupur7
Senapati6
Chandel5
Kamjong5
Ukhrul4
Jiribam3
Pherzawl3
Kakching2
Tamenglong2
Noney1

28,970 17

196 1

28,405 18

369

DistrictCases
Chandigarh313

20,686 22

127 10

20,226 31

333 1

DistrictCases
Changlang31
Papum Pare8
Lohit3
Namsai2
West Siang1
East Siang1
Upper Siang1
Tawang1
PakkeKessang1
West Kameng0
Upper Subansiri0
Tirap0
Siang0
Shi Yomi0
Anjaw0
Lower Subansiri0
Lower Dibang Valley0
Longding0
Leparada0
KurungKumey0
KraDaadi0
Kamle0
East Kameng0
Dibang Valley0
Lower Siang0

16,818 1

37 0

16,725 1

56

DistrictCases
East Khasi Hills22
West Garo Hills5
South West Garo Hills4
North Garo Hills1
West Jaintia Hills1
West Khasi Hills1
East Garo Hills0
East Jaintia Hills0
Ribhoi0
South Garo Hills0
South West Khasi Hills0

13,727 4

122 6

13,459 10

146

DistrictCases
Dimapur20
Mon8
Kohima7
Kiphire3
Tuensang3
Peren2
Phek1
Longleng0
Mokokchung0
Wokha0
Zunheboto0

12,076 4

104 0

11,884 4

88

DistrictCases
Kargil77
LehLadakh43

9,675 2

62 6

9,484 8

129

DistrictCases
East District3
South District3
North District0
West District0

6,068 5

134 6

5,802 10

132 1

DistrictCases
South Andamans33
Nicobars1
North And Middle Andaman1

4,993 1

24 1

4,907

62

DistrictCases
Kolasib11
Aizawl10
Mamit8
Lawngtlai2
Lunglei2
Saitual1
Champhai0
Hnahthial0
Khawzawl0
Saiha0
Serchhip0

4,351 2

58 0

4,284 2

9

DistrictCases
Dadra And Nagar Haveli20

3,394

10 0

3,382

2

DistrictCases
Lakshadweep District0

57 7

57 7

0

0

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