As The World’s First Case Of COVID-19 Reinfection Confirms In Hong Kong, Experts Say Second Time Infections Are Possible But Rare

As The World’s First Case Of COVID-19 Reinfection Confirms In Hong Kong, Experts Say Second Time Infections Are Possible But Rare

According to scientists of the University of Hong Kong, a 33-year-old man who returned to Hong Kong from a trip to Spain in mid-August has got a second COVID-19 infection; he was previously infected in March and was discharged from a hospital in April
Coronavirus Outbreak, News
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As The World’s First Case Of COVID-19 Reinfection Confirms In Hong Kong, Experts Say Second Time Infections Are Possible But RareAs the medical community and scientists continue to learn more about coronavirus, the world’s first case of reinfection of COVID-19 has been documented in Hong Kong
Highlights
  • World's first confirmed case of COVID-19 reinfection is from Hong Kong
  • The strain of virus is different from the one in previous infection: Expert
  • COVID patients should not be complacent about prevention measures: Experts

New Delhi: According to a new research to be published in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases, scientists from the University of Hong Kong have claimed to have the first evidence of reinfection of COVID-19. Thus, confirming that it is possible to get COVID-19 twice, say experts adding that there is no need to be worried as reinfection from coronavirus seems to be rare. The evidence gathered for COVID-19 reinfections has, however, raised questions around how durable our immunity really is against SARS-CoV-2. The Hong Kong University researchers have said that a 33-year-old IT (Information Technology) worker who contracted the coronavirus in March this year and was cleared of Covid-19 and discharged from a hospital in April, tested positive for the virus again after returning from Spain earlier this month. At first, he was suspected to be a “persistent carrier” of the virus from his previous infection but now the researchers have proved it to be reinfection. The findings also show that the viral strain in the reinfection is genetically varied from the virus contracted by him earlier. Two patients in Europe have also been confirmed to have been re-infected with COVID-19. The Health Minister of Telangana has also announced that the day after Hong Kong case came to light, at least two cases of coronavirus reinfection have taken place in the state.

Also Read: Delhi Opens Post-COVID Clinic For Recovered Patients, Here’s How It Will Help

Explaining about the chances of reinfections and what happens during it, Dr Jayaprakash Muliyil, Ex. Principal, CMC Vellore and Leading Epidemiologist said,

What is impressive about this particular finding is that we had expected this to occur more frequently than it is happening now. There are two issues that we must understand- first, a person who is already infected by a virus, very often acquires immunity but may permit the temporary colonisation of his nose, throat or gut. This is a well-known phenomenon. In coronavirus, for some reason, we were not finding it. Now here there is an added spin to it. The researcher of Hong Kong University said that the virus isolated in the reinfection case is genetically different from the virus in the previous infection. It could be a genetic variant but by and large, the probability of that is low. So without more information on this, it will be difficult to predict how it will turn out. What we know as of now is that in this particular case, there no symptoms of coronavirus disease.

He further emphasised that the person who got the reinfection, contracted the virus from somebody and so there is a threat of spreading around of the virus among other people who have come in contact with him. Dr. Muliyil highlighted that reinfections are a rare phenomenon. He said,

The fact that reinfection is rare is a fascinating thing about coronavirus. For example, there is a 24 per cent chance that an adult who is fully vaccinated with poliovirus can establish the virus temporarily if given the poliovirus. But in the case of coronavirus, the human body is not easily permitting reinfections.

Also Read: Explainer: Reaching Herd Immunity In A Viral Pandemic

According to Dr. Muliyil, there may not be a need for a different vaccine for the modified strain of virus causing reinfections because those viruses may not be too different in genetic sequence from the original virus. However, he highlighted that currently there are only preliminary findings available and with more evidence and information only it will be clear if there is a need to go for another vaccine to avoid reinfections. While talking about the sustainability of the immunity developed by patients who recover from COVID-19, Dr. Muliyil said,

There is a group of experts who believe that the immunity developed while recovering from COVID-19 is pretty solid and may last for quite some time but on the other hand there are also studies that question the strength of the antibodies made and the immunity developed. There have been instances where a fading of antibodies is seen. So there is still not conclusive evidence on antibodies. The variation in the genetic sequence that the researchers of Hong Kong University have talked about in their paper, is a pretty common phenomenon in viruses. There are high chances that these viruses do not require a new antibody or a new vaccine.

Talking about reinfections in the case of coronavirus, Dr Paul Offit an American paediatrician specializing in infectious diseases, vaccines, immunology, and virology also said that reinfections are rare. He said,

The question is does the natural infection protect against reinfections? In other words, are there people out there who got moderately to severely ill from COVID-19 and recovered and got moderately to severely ill again when they encounter this virus again? If that’s true, then it is really worrying but we haven’t really heard that yet.

Also Read: Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: Air Conditioners That Recirculate Indoor Air May Increase The Risk Of COVID-19 Transmission, Say Experts

He further said that there are certain viruses from which the natural infection gives no protection and there are multiple infections, therefore, there are no vaccines developed for such diseases. In case of coronavirus, he said, the virus has been out there for only eight or nine months and the researchers do not have a lot of information about it yet but one can be optimistic based on what the experience has been till now that natural infection does offer some level of protection for some length of time, Dr Offit said.

Earlier, there have been documented cases of patients who tested positive for COVID-19 multiple times, but, according to Dr. KK Agarwal, President, Confederation of Medical Associations in Asia and Oceania (CMAAO) and Medtalks, Heart Care Foundation of India, it was because of the virus’ genetic material- mostly dead or weakened lingers within the body, leading to repeated positive tests. However, the newly documented cases have shown two separate strains of SARS-CoV-2 (the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19), which show that infections can indeed occur twice. Therefore, the COVID-19 patients should not be complacent about prevention measures thinking that they have enough immunity against the virus, he said.

Also Read: Soon, India Will Have Its Dedicated Vaccine Portal: Indian Council of Medical Research

NDTV – Dettol Banega Swasth India campaign is an extension of the five-year-old Banega Swachh India initiative helmed by Campaign Ambassador Amitabh Bachchan. It aims to spread awareness about critical health issues facing the country. In wake of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the need for WASH (WaterSanitation and Hygiene) is reaffirmed as handwashing is one of the ways to prevent Coronavirus infection and other diseases. The campaign highlights the importance of nutrition and healthcare for women and children to prevent maternal and child mortality, fight malnutrition, stunting, wasting, anaemia and disease prevention through vaccines. Importance of programmes like Public Distribution System (PDS), Mid-day Meal Scheme, POSHAN Abhiyan and the role of Aganwadis and ASHA workers are also covered. Only a Swachh or clean India where toilets are used and open defecation free (ODF) status achieved as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2014, can eradicate diseases like diahorrea and become a Swasth or healthy India. The campaign will continue to cover issues like air pollutionwaste managementplastic banmanual scavenging and sanitation workers and menstrual hygiene.  

World

9,87,19,695Cases
4,21,73,757Active
5,44,25,394Recovered
21,20,544Deaths
Coronavirus has spread to 192 countries. The total confirmed cases worldwide are 9,87,19,695 and 21,20,544 have died; 4,21,73,757 are active cases and 5,44,25,394 have recovered as on January 24, 2021 at 4:12 am.

India

1,06,54,533 14849Cases
1,84,408 -1254Active
1,03,16,786 15948Recovered
1,53,339 155Deaths
In India, there are 1,06,54,533 confirmed cases including 1,53,339 deaths. The number of active cases is 1,84,408 and 1,03,16,786 have recovered as on January 24, 2021 at 2:30 am.

State & District Details

State Cases Active Recovered Deaths
DistrictCases
Mumbai45,478
Thane13,660
Pune9,920
Mumbai Suburban5,363
Aurangabad1,974
Nashik1,575
Raigad1,462
Palghar1,421
Solapur1,291
Jalgaon1,039
Akola757
Nagpur692
Kolhapur646
Satara629
Ratnagiri350
Amravati291
Dhule228
Hingoli208
Jalna201
Ahmednagar190
Nanded176
Yavatmal150
Sangli145
Latur139
Osmanabad125
Sindhudurg114
Buldhana88
Parbhani78
gondia69
Beed54
Nandurbar42
Gadchiroli42
Bhandara41
Chandrapur32
Washim13
Wardha11

20,06,354 2,697

45,093 1,053

19,10,521 3,694

50,740 56

DistrictCases
Udupi1,176
Kalaburagi669
Yadgir538
Bengaluru Urban529
Raichur369
Mandya346
Belagavi337
Bidar219
Hassan205
Davangere204
Vijayapura201
Dakshina Kannada179
Chikkaballapura149
Mysuru107
Bagalkote103
Uttara Kannada95
Shivamogga67
Dharwad61
Ballari60
Gadag45
Bengaluru Rural40
Tumakuru36
Kolar29
Haveri24
Chikkamagaluru19
Chitradurga14
Koppal5
Kodagu4
Ramanagara3
Chamarajanagara0

9,35,478 902

7,361 357

9,15,924 542

12,193 3

DistrictCases
Kurnool795
Krishna557
Guntur511
Anantapur428
East Godavari356
Chittoor319
Sri Potti Sriramulu Nell*296
Y.S.R.205
West Godavari199
Srikakulam183
Prakasam104
Visakhapatnam103
Vizianagaram23

8,86,852 158

1,473 15

8,78,232 172

7,147 1

DistrictCases
Kannur357
Kasaragod333
Palakkad224
Malappuram119
Kollam118
Thrissur106
Thiruvananthapuram104
Pathanamthitta98
Kozhikode90
Alappuzha76
Kottayam73
Ernakulam60
Idukki40
Wayanad36

8,84,242 6,960

72,278 1,654

8,08,377 5,283

3,587 23

DistrictCases
Chennai23,324
Chengalpattu1,314
Thiruvallur774
Villupuram509
Kanchipuram503
Tiruvannamalai496
Cuddalore477
Ariyalur444
Tirunelveli433
Tuticorin333
Kallakurichi324
Madurai322
Salem258
Coimbatore188
Virudhunagar185
Dindigul175
Perambalur133
Ranipet133
Thanjavur130
Theni129
Tiruchirappalli119
Ramanathapuram119
Tiruppur116
Kanniyakumari110
Tenkasi103
Nagapattinam99
Karur88
Namakkal83
Erode75
Vellore71
Thiruvarur67
Pudukkottai53
Sivaganga46
Tirupathur45
Krishnagiri43
The Nilgiris17
Dharmapuri15

8,34,171 586

4,984 89

8,16,878 673

12,309 2

DistrictCases
North West5,463
Central4,817
West4,768
New Delhi3,405
North3,059
East2,472
South East2,446
South West2,391
South2,329
North East1,914
Shahdara1,580

6,33,739 197

1,880 180

6,21,060 367

10,799 10

DistrictCases
Gautam Buddha Nagar1,119
Agra933
Ghaziabad794
Meerut504
Lucknow386
Saharanpur298
Kanpur Nagar286
Moradabad252
Varanasi243
Hapur225
Aligarh215
Basti214
Amethi206
Rampur203
Jaunpur194
Firozabad190
Barabanki168
Gorakhpur166
Bulandshahr166
Siddharth Nagar159
Ghazipur159
Bijnor157
Deoria143
Azamgarh138
Sant Kabeer Nagar132
Mathura129
Ayodhya120
Muzaffarnagar117
Sambhal116
Sultanpur97
Ambedkar Nagar92
Maharajganj85
Amroha80
Rae Bareli78
Bahraich73
Kheri72
Kannauj69
Baghpat68
Kushi Nagar67
Bhadohi60
Ballia60
Gonda59
Etah52
Hardoi49
Balrampur49
Mau48
Mainpuri46
Etawah46
Hathras43
Unnao42
Jalaun41
Jhansi41
Shamli40
Chandauli38
Auraiya37
Farrukhabad36
Sitapur32
Prayagraj30
Banda27
Shahjahanpur25
Shravasti23
Budaun23
Mirzapur22
Bareilly17
Kasganj16
Pratapgarh15
Pilibhit15
Sonbhadra10
Kaushambi6
Kanpur Dehat4
Chitrakoot4
Lalitpur3
Hamirpur3
Mahoba3
Fatehpur3

5,98,445 319

7,330 198

5,82,506 513

8,609 4

DistrictCases
Kolkata2,777
Howrah1,435
24 Paraganas North1,031
Hooghly604
24 Paraganas South281
Maldah235
Dinajpur Uttar216
Coochbehar210
Birbhum206
Medinipur West159
Medinipur East153
Nadia139
Purba Bardhaman130
Murshidabad125
Bankura116
Darjeeling97
Jalpaiguri88
Paschim Bardhaman70
Purulia66
Dinajpur Dakshin50
Alipurduar39
Kalimpong18
Jhargram9

5,67,714 410

6,396 74

5,51,211 474

10,107 10

DistrictCases
Ganjam581
Jajapur322
Khordha238
Baleshwar190
Kendrapara164
Cuttack155
Bhadrak137
Balangir129
Puri103
Sundargarh102
Jagatsinghapur91
Nayagarh86
Mayurbhanj73
Nuapada69
Gajapati61
Dhenkanal36
Boudh34
Kendujhar34
Deogarh33
Kalahandi33
Sonepur29
Kandhamal28
Anugul26
Malkangiri20
Bargarh16
Koraput16
Sambalpur16
Jharsuguda8
Nabarangpur2
Rayagada2

3,34,150 130

1,284 76

3,30,962 205

1,904 1

DistrictCases
Jaipur2,177
Jodhpur1,748
Udaipur724
Bharatpur563
Kota503
Nagaur500
Ajmer379
Dungarpur374
Pali352
Jhalawar329
Bhilwara250
Sikar231
Chittorgarh188
Tonk171
Jalore164
Rajsamand140
Sirohi130
Bikaner112
Banswara91
Alwar90
Churu81
Jhunjhunu64
Dausa61
Dholpur60
Baran59
Jaisalmer53
Barmer34
Hanumangarh31
SawaiMadhopur26
Karauli17
Pratapgarh14
Ganganagar8
Bundi5

3,16,485 203

3,448 271

3,10,279 472

2,758 2

DistrictCases
Bilaspur100
Korba100
Mungeli87
Baloda Bazar85
Jashpur77
Janjgir-Champa56
Mahasamund54
Rajnandgaon52
Kabirdham52
Raigarh47
Raipur46
Balod41
Korea39
Durg31
Bemetara21
Kanker19
Balrampur17
Surguja14
Gariyaband10
Surajpur9
Dhamtari6
Bijapur2
Bastar2
Dantewada0
Kondagaon0
Narayanpur0
Sukma0

2,96,326 377

5,040 268

2,87,677 637

3,609 8

DistrictCases
Hyderabad2,475
Ranga Reddy183
Suryapet87
Jagitial77
Nizamabad76
MedchalMalkajgiri75
Mancherial43
YadadriBhuvanagiri40
Jogulamba Gadwal40
Vikarabad40
Nalgonda33
Warangal Urban32
Mahabubnagar30
Sangareddy26
Khammam26
Adilabad22
Nirmal21
Karimnagar17
RajannaSircilla16
Medak11
Kamareddy11
Mahabubabad10
Jayashankar Bhupalapally9
Nagarkurnool8
Kumuram Bheem Asifabad8
Jangoan8
Siddipet7
Peddapalli5
Bhadradri Kothagudem5
Warangal Rural4
Mulugu3
Narayanpet3
Wanaparthy1

2,93,253 197

3,389 180

2,88,275 376

1,589 1

DistrictCases
Gurugram2,950
Faridabad867
Sonipat404
Rohtak145
Palwal120
Jhajjar114
Karnal104
Hisar98
Ambala93
Panipat78
Nuh68
Bhiwani60
Rewari56
Kurukshetra55
Sirsa50
Kaithal48
Mahendragarh47
CharkiDadri43
Panchkula39
Fatehabad38
Jind38
Yamunanagar19

2,67,075 136

1,559 26

2,62,507 158

3,009 4

DistrictCases
Ahmadabad17,125
Surat2,311
Vadodara1,555
Gandhinagar410
Mahesana159
Banas Kantha147
Bhavnagar146
Rajkot135
Arvalli134
Mahisagar125
Anand107
PanchMahals107
Patan105
SabarKantha101
Kachchh99
Kheda98
Jamnagar63
Bharuch56
Botad55
Surendranagar55
Valsad47
GirSomnath45
Dohad43
Chhotaudepur37
Naysari35
Junagadh31
Narmada25
DevbhumiDwarka22
Amreli16
Porbandar11
Tapi6
Dang5
Morbi4

2,58,687 423

4,960 280

2,49,352 702

4,375 1

DistrictCases
Patna279
Bhagalpur266
Rohtas256
Khagaria253
Begusarai243
Madhubani199
Munger188
Jehanabad178
Katihar175
Darbhanga143
Samastipur139
Siwan139
PurbiChamparan138
Purnia135
Banka134
Buxar134
Nalanda123
Gopalganj123
Nawada122
Sheikhpura118
Gaya115
Kaimur (bhabua)105
Bhojpur103
Saran101
Muzaffarpur96
Saharsa88
Supaul87
Vaishali87
Madhepura82
Kishanganj75
Aurangabad75
Sitamarhi73
Lakhisarai72
Araria68
Pashchim Champaran57
Arwal52
Jamui47
Sheohar20

2,58,638 125

2,599 83

2,54,563 204

1,476 4

DistrictCases
Indore3,839
Bhopal1,880
Ujjain799
Burhanpur351
Neemuch319
Jabalpur276
East Nimar266
Sagar228
Gwalior211
Khargone196
Dewas140
Dhar132
Mandsaur112
Morena109
Bhind87
Raisen71
Barwani60
Ratlam51
Rewa39
Shajapur39
Hoshangabad37
Vidisha37
Chhatarpur35
Betul35
Rajgarh31
Dindori29
Sheopur26
Damoh26
Satna24
Anuppur22
Panna20
Tikamgarh18
Sidhi17
Narsinghpur17
Chhindwara16
Agar Malwa15
Mandla15
Shivpuri15
Jhabua14
Shandol14
Singrauli13
Ashoknagar13
Datia12
Sehore12
Umaria10
Balaghat9
Guna8
Harda4
Alirajpur3
Katni3
Seoni2
Niwari0

2,53,405 291

4,310 169

2,45,309 454

3,786 6

DistrictCases
Kamrup Metro276
Golaghat203
Nagaon143
Hojai89
Dima Hasao86
Karimganj85
Tinsukia84
Cachar80
Dibrugarh61
Hailakandi57
Lakhimpur57
Marigaon50
Dhemaji47
Kamrup42
Kokrajhar37
Dhubri30
Charaideo29
Barpeta28
Udalguri28
Sonitpur27
Jorhat24
Nalbari23
Darrang20
Sivasagar20
Goalpara19
Biswanath16
Baksa14
KarbiAnglong13
Bongaigaon12
Chirang6
West KarbiAnglong5
South SalmaraMancachar4
Majuli2

2,16,976 19

2,407 75

2,13,492 94

1,077

DistrictCases
Amritsar485
Jalandhar297
Ludhiana293
Tarn Taran163
Gurdaspur154
Hoshiarpur140
S.A.S Nagar137
Patiala132
Sangrur107
Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar (Nawanshahr)99
Pathankot86
Rupnagar (Ropar)74
Faridkot74
Sri Muktsar Sahib71
Moga65
Bathinda60
Fatehgarh Sahib57
Fazilka53
Firozepur50
Kapurthala44
Mansa31
Barnala25

1,71,733 211

2,293 31

1,63,887 232

5,553 10

DistrictCases
Anantnag395
Srinagar300
Kulgam295
Baramulla271
Shopian255
Kupwara231
Bandipora175
Udhampur155
Ramban151
Jammu138
Budgam110
Pulwama108
Kathua53
Rajouri39
Ganderbal37
Poonch35
Doda27
Reasi26
Samba25
Kishtwar10
Mirpur0
Muzaffarabad0

1,23,946 94

1,103 5

1,20,914 88

1,929 1

DistrictCases
East Singhbum170
Ranchi148
Hazaribagh110
Garhwa80
Ramgarh75
Koderma58
Simdega48
Dhanbad32
Gumla28
Palamu27
West Singhbhum21
SaraikelaKharsawan20
Giridih19
Bokaro16
Latehar14
Khunti10
Lohardaga8
Deoghar5
Dumka5
Pakur4
Jamtara2
Godda2
Chatra1
Sahebganj0

1,18,232 78

878 100

1,16,293 177

1,061 1

DistrictCases
Dehradun370
Nainital323
Tehri Garhwal110
Haridwar94
Udam Singh Nagar83
Almora71
Champawat45
Pithoragarh43
Chamoli36
PauriGarhwal36
Bageshwar31
Rudraprayag30
Uttar Kashi24

95,586 122

1,733 62

92,224 184

1,629

DistrictCases
Hamirpur117
Kangra105
Una41
Solan32
Chamba29
Bilaspur21
Mandi21
Sirmaur11
Shimla10
Kullu4
Kinnaur2
Lahaul And Spiti0

57,189 27

469 47

55,749 73

971 1

DistrictCases
South Goa69
North Goa57

52,867 85

873 19

51,233 63

761 3

DistrictCases
Pondicherry111
Mahe4
Karaikal2
Yanam0

38,830 36

302 8

37,884 27

644 1

DistrictCases
Dhalai196
Sepahijala174
Gomati74
South Tripura53
Unakoti49
West Tripura45
Khowai24
North Tripura14

33,345 1

35 1

32,919

391

DistrictCases
Churachandpur32
Kangpokpi26
Imphal West21
Thoubal18
Imphal East10
Tengnoupal9
Bishnupur7
Senapati6
Chandel5
Kamjong5
Ukhrul4
Jiribam3
Pherzawl3
Kakching2
Tamenglong2
Noney1

28,970 17

196 1

28,405 18

369

DistrictCases
Chandigarh313

20,686 22

127 10

20,226 31

333 1

DistrictCases
Changlang31
Papum Pare8
Lohit3
Namsai2
West Siang1
East Siang1
Upper Siang1
Tawang1
PakkeKessang1
West Kameng0
Upper Subansiri0
Tirap0
Siang0
Shi Yomi0
Anjaw0
Lower Subansiri0
Lower Dibang Valley0
Longding0
Leparada0
KurungKumey0
KraDaadi0
Kamle0
East Kameng0
Dibang Valley0
Lower Siang0

16,818 1

37 0

16,725 1

56

DistrictCases
East Khasi Hills22
West Garo Hills5
South West Garo Hills4
North Garo Hills1
West Jaintia Hills1
West Khasi Hills1
East Garo Hills0
East Jaintia Hills0
Ribhoi0
South Garo Hills0
South West Khasi Hills0

13,727 4

122 6

13,459 10

146

DistrictCases
Dimapur20
Mon8
Kohima7
Kiphire3
Tuensang3
Peren2
Phek1
Longleng0
Mokokchung0
Wokha0
Zunheboto0

12,076 4

104 0

11,884 4

88

DistrictCases
Kargil77
LehLadakh43

9,675 2

62 6

9,484 8

129

DistrictCases
East District3
South District3
North District0
West District0

6,068 5

134 6

5,802 10

132 1

DistrictCases
South Andamans33
Nicobars1
North And Middle Andaman1

4,993 1

24 1

4,907

62

DistrictCases
Kolasib11
Aizawl10
Mamit8
Lawngtlai2
Lunglei2
Saitual1
Champhai0
Hnahthial0
Khawzawl0
Saiha0
Serchhip0

4,351 2

58 0

4,284 2

9

DistrictCases
Dadra And Nagar Haveli20

3,394

10 0

3,382

2

DistrictCases
Lakshadweep District0

57 7

57 7

0

0

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Study Sheds More Light On Role Played By Immune System’s T Cells Against Coronavirus

According to researchers, while antibodies offer one mode of protection against pathogens, the cells of the immune system, including the CD8+ T cells are responsible for destroying virus-infected host cells