New Delhi: Scientists on Friday (May 12) said that cyclonic storms in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea are becoming more intense and lasting longer due to climate change. The researchers attribute the increase in the global mean temperature to the changes in the cyclogenesis, particularly over the Indian Ocean. According to a study titled ‘Changing status of tropical cyclones over the North Indian Ocean’, the Arabian Sea saw a significant increase in the intensity, frequency, and duration of cyclonic storms and very severe cyclonic storms during the period of 1982 to 2019.
The study found a 52-per cent increase in the frequency of cyclonic storms in the Arabian Sea during the recent epoch (2001–2019) while there was an 8 per cent decrease in the Bay of Bengal.
Cyclones nowadays can retain their energy for quite a long number of days. One example of this trend was Cyclone Amphan, which continued to travel over land as a strong cyclone and resulted in massive devastation. As long as oceans are warm and winds are favourable, cyclones will retain their intensity for a longer period, said Roxy Mathew Koll, a climate scientist at the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology and a lead author of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports.
Cyclone Mocha, which rapidly intensified into a very severe cyclonic storm, is predicted to make a disastrous landfall in Bangladesh and western Myanmar with wind speeds reaching up to 175 kmph. The World Meteorological Organization has warned of violent winds, floods, and possible landslides in Bangladesh, and inundations of low-lying areas in Myanmar.
According to the Ministry of Earth Sciences’ report titled ‘Assessment of Climate Change over the Indian Region’, climate model simulations project a rise in tropical cyclone intensity (medium confidence) and precipitation intensity (medium-to-high confidence) in the North Indian Ocean basin.
The report compared pre-1950 and post-1950 periods and found the number of severe cyclonic storms rose from 94 to 140 (a 49 per cent increase) in the Bay of Bengal region and from 29 to 44 (a 52 per cent increase) in the Arabian Sea region annually.
Observations indicate that the frequency of extremely severe cyclonic storms over the Arabian Sea has increased during the post-monsoon seasons of 1998 to 2018. There is “medium confidence” in attributing this observed increase to human-induced SST warming. Dr MM Ali, Meteorologist and Oceanologist, Andhra Pradesh State Disaster Management Authority and Group Director – Atmosphere, ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation) said,
Sea surface temperatures are increasing. The mechanism behind the formation of cyclones does not change, but weather conditions are changing. Cyclones have been intensifying at a faster pace in the recent past. The reason behind this is not just an increase in the sea-surface temperatures but also rising ocean heat content
Around 90 per cent of the energy trapped in the climate system by greenhouse gases goes into the oceans. The ocean heat content, which measures this gain in energy, reached a record high in 2022, according to WMO’s ‘State of the Global Climate 2022’ report.
Despite three consecutive years of La Nina conditions, 58 per cent of the ocean surface experienced at least one marine heat wave in 2022. In contrast, only 25 per cent of the ocean surface experienced a marine cold spell, the WMO said.
Global mean sea level is at a record high, having risen by 4.62 mm per year from 2013 to 2022, double the rate between 1993 and 2022.
(This story has not been edited by NDTV staff and is published from a syndicated feed.)
NDTV – Dettol have been working towards a clean and healthy India since 2014 via the Banega Swachh India initiative, which is helmed by Campaign Ambassador Amitabh Bachchan. The campaign aims to highlight the inter-dependency of humans and the environment, and of humans on one another with the focus on One Health, One Planet, One Future – Leaving No One Behind. It stresses on the need to take care of, and consider, everyone’s health in India – especially vulnerable communities – the LGBTQ population, indigenous people, India’s different tribes, ethnic and linguistic minorities, people with disabilities, migrants, geographically remote populations, gender and sexual minorities. In wake of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the need for WASH (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) is reaffirmed as handwashing is one of the ways to prevent Coronavirus infection and other diseases. The campaign will continue to raise awareness on the same along with focussing on the importance of nutrition and healthcare for women and children, fight malnutrition, mental wellbeing, self care, science and health, adolescent health & gender awareness. Along with the health of people, the campaign has realised the need to also take care of the health of the eco-system. Our environment is fragile due to human activity, which is not only over-exploiting available resources, but also generating immense pollution as a result of using and extracting those resources. The imbalance has also led to immense biodiversity loss that has caused one of the biggest threats to human survival – climate change. It has now been described as a “code red for humanity.” The campaign will continue to cover issues like air pollution, waste management, plastic ban, manual scavenging and sanitation workers and menstrual hygiene. Banega Swasth India will also be taking forward the dream of Swasth Bharat, the campaign feels that only a Swachh or clean India where toilets are used and open defecation free (ODF) status achieved as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2014, can eradicate diseases like diahorrea and the country can become a Swasth or healthy India.