Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Tests Are Needed? Who Should Take The Coronavirus Test? All You Need To Know

Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Tests Are Needed? Who Should Take The Coronavirus Test? All You Need To Know

There are two kinds of the test – RTPCR (Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) and a CT scan of the chest, to detect the presence of the coronavirus in an individual
Coronavirus Outbreak, News, Swasth India
- in Coronavirus Outbreak, News, Swasth India
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COVID-19: What Tests Are Needed? Who Should Take The Coronavirus Test? All You Need To KnowIn India, two COVID-19 tests – screening and confirmatory test are done back to back before declaring someone coronavirus positive or negative

New Delhi: The spread of coronavirus is intensifying domestically and so are the government measures to tackle it. Like, initially, the government and ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research), the nodal agency for the drive against COVID-19, resorted to testing coronavirus suspects only in designated government hospitals. But, addressing the call for more testing centers, the government has roped in private laboratories and as of March 27, 44 private laboratories have been authorised by ICMR to conduct COVID-19 tests.

Also Read: Coronavirus Outbreak: How Long The Novel Virus Lives On Surfaces Like Cardboard, Plastic, And Steel, Experts Explain

While the government has increased the number of testing centers, there are doubts like even in private laboratories, who can be tested? Can anyone go and ask for the test? Is it like a regular blood test? What is the testing procedure? Are private laboratories offering COVID-19 tests for free? Here we will get answers to all and more such questions related to the COVID-19 test – one of the essentials to flatten the curve.

When And Who Can Get Tested For COVID-19?

Following the ICMR guidelines (revised on March 20), individuals who have undertaken international travel in the last 14 days and have symptoms – fever, cough, difficulty in breathing need to be tested. Asymptomatic individuals having a travel history need to home quarantine for 14 days and are tested only if they become symptomatic.

Apart from this, all symptomatic contacts of laboratory-confirmed cases; all symptomatic health care workers; all hospitalised patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Illness (fever and cough and/or shortness of breath) should be tested.

Asymptomatic direct and high-risk contacts of a confirmed case should be tested once between day 5 and day 14 of coming in his/her contact. Direct and high-risk contact include those who live in the same household with a confirmed case and healthcare workers who examined a confirmed case without adequate protection as per the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) recommendations, reads the revised strategy of COVID-19 testing in India.

Explaining who validates whether a person needs to undergo a COVID-19 test or not, Dr Navin Dang, founder and director of Dr Dang’s lab said,

The lab technician going to the patient’s home for sample collection asks for a doctor’s prescription wherever the doctor must have very judiciously selected the patient for the test. A doctor’s prescription is a must.

This clearly means that an individual can’t request for a COVID-19 test or go to any laboratory to get tested only because he/she feels he/she has contracted the virus and wants to be sure of it.

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What Are The Different Kinds Of COVID-19 Test?

There are two kinds of the test – RTPCR (Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) and a CT scan of the chest, to detect the presence of the coronavirus in an individual. Explaining how to select the right kind of the test, Dr Rajesh Parikh, Director Medical Research and Neuropsychiatrist at Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre said,

There are two important markers of the value of a test – sensitivity and specificity. Sensitivity is the ability of a test to correctly identify those affected with the disease and not give false negatives. The more sensitive a test is, fewer false negatives will turn up. On the other hand, specificity is to identify those without the disease and not declare false positives. For instance, out of 100 people, 75 have been infected and the test shows, 80 are infected. The test has given five false positives. While RTPCR is more specific than sensitive, CT scan has a high sensitivity rate.

If one has to make a choice between false positive and false negative, one should go for false positive as it’s better to be falsely tested positive and get isolated than wrongly declared negative.

If an individual is tested false negative for COVID-19, he/she will rejoice, move freely and continue to infect others, said Dr Parikh.

Currently, in India, RTPCR is being followed for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Explaining why CT scan is not done, Dr Parikh said,

Through CT scan you get ground glass appearance in the lungs of patients who have an illness such as in a windscreen hit by a stone becoming opaque. The entire process of CT scan including the preparation of the patient and machines takes 30-40 minutes and people will have to line up for the test. While waiting, people can infect each other. Besides it is expensive and can only be performed in few centers.

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How Is The COVID-19 Test Done?

The entire process can be divided into various parts ranging from sample collection, screening, preparing the report and transporting the positive samples. Private players have been asked to follow the home collection of samples so that suspected COVID-19 patients do not travel to reach the laboratory and infect others.

Elaborating on the process, Dr Dang said,

The first and foremost step is sample collection. As and when we receive a call for the test, a technician goes from here (lab) in a car. He/she carries Personal Protective Equipments (PPEs) – protective gears designed to safeguard the health of workers by minimising the exposure to a biological agent. On reaching the patient’s house, the technician puts on PPEs, collects the patient’s government identity card, doctor’s prescription and a form stating his/her travel history, symptoms, and other details.

Following this, a sample is collected using different methods like a swab is taken from a patient’s throat and nostril. It is then kept in ‘virus transport medium’ in order to protect and safely transport it to the laboratory. In the laboratory, using the government recommended and approved chemicals – primers and probes, the sample is extracted.

Coronavirus contains RNA or Ribonucleic acid which gets activated during the extraction process. From the time the sample reaches laboratory, it takes about five hours to test it thoroughly and give the final verdict, said Dr Parikh.

Also Read: COVID-19: Lockdown Alone Will Not Eradicate Coronavirus, Need More Testing And Isolating, Say Experts

In India, two tests – screening and confirmatory test are done back to back before giving the final report. Only doing the screening test gives a certain amount of false positive or false-negative that’s we give a final report after the confirmatory test, said Dr Dang.

The result is validated by the microbiologist and sent to the government in real-time. While the negative samples are kept in the laboratory for three days and then discarded, positive samples are sent to ICMR-NIV, Pune.

What Is The Cost Of A COVID-19 Test?

The national task force for COVID-19 recommends that the cost of sample testing should not exceed Rs. 4,500. This includes two tests – screening test costing Rs. 1,500 and a confirmatory test costing Rs. 3,000.

We are doing this test at a cost price of Rs. 4,500 and provide end to end facilities – from sample collection, sample testing, to delivery of the final report, said Dr Dang.

Also Read: Public Distribution System Items To Be Supplied At Doorsteps In Haryana

World

9,68,44,582Cases
4,14,20,135Active
5,33,50,358Recovered
20,74,089Deaths
Coronavirus has spread to 191 countries. The total confirmed cases worldwide are 9,68,44,582 and 20,74,089 have died; 4,14,20,135 are active cases and 5,33,50,358 have recovered as on January 21, 2021 at 4:15 am.

India

1,06,10,883 15223Cases
1,92,308 -4893Active
1,02,65,706 19965Recovered
1,52,869 151Deaths
In India, there are 1,06,10,883 confirmed cases including 1,52,869 deaths. The number of active cases is 1,92,308 and 1,02,65,706 have recovered as on January 21, 2021 at 2:30 am.

State & District Details

State Cases Active Recovered Deaths
DistrictCases
Mumbai45,478
Thane13,660
Pune9,920
Mumbai Suburban5,363
Aurangabad1,974
Nashik1,575
Raigad1,462
Palghar1,421
Solapur1,291
Jalgaon1,039
Akola757
Nagpur692
Kolhapur646
Satara629
Ratnagiri350
Amravati291
Dhule228
Hingoli208
Jalna201
Ahmednagar190
Nanded176
Yavatmal150
Sangli145
Latur139
Osmanabad125
Sindhudurg114
Buldhana88
Parbhani78
gondia69
Beed54
Nandurbar42
Gadchiroli42
Bhandara41
Chandrapur32
Washim13
Wardha11

19,97,992 3,015

47,982 1,633

18,99,428 4,589

50,582 59

DistrictCases
Udupi1,176
Kalaburagi669
Yadgir538
Bengaluru Urban529
Raichur369
Mandya346
Belagavi337
Bidar219
Hassan205
Davangere204
Vijayapura201
Dakshina Kannada179
Chikkaballapura149
Mysuru107
Bagalkote103
Uttara Kannada95
Shivamogga67
Dharwad61
Ballari60
Gadag45
Bengaluru Rural40
Tumakuru36
Kolar29
Haveri24
Chikkamagaluru19
Chitradurga14
Koppal5
Kodagu4
Ramanagara3
Chamarajanagara0

9,33,578 501

7,716 168

9,13,677 665

12,185 4

DistrictCases
Kurnool795
Krishna557
Guntur511
Anantapur428
East Godavari356
Chittoor319
Sri Potti Sriramulu Nell*296
Y.S.R.205
West Godavari199
Srikakulam183
Prakasam104
Visakhapatnam103
Vizianagaram23

8,86,418 173

1,637 23

8,77,639 196

7,142

DistrictCases
Kannur357
Kasaragod333
Palakkad224
Malappuram119
Kollam118
Thrissur106
Thiruvananthapuram104
Pathanamthitta98
Kozhikode90
Alappuzha76
Kottayam73
Ernakulam60
Idukki40
Wayanad36

8,64,195 6,815

69,914 567

7,90,757 7,364

3,524 18

DistrictCases
Chennai23,324
Chengalpattu1,314
Thiruvallur774
Villupuram509
Kanchipuram503
Tiruvannamalai496
Cuddalore477
Ariyalur444
Tirunelveli433
Tuticorin333
Kallakurichi324
Madurai322
Salem258
Coimbatore188
Virudhunagar185
Dindigul175
Perambalur133
Ranipet133
Thanjavur130
Theni129
Tiruchirappalli119
Ramanathapuram119
Tiruppur116
Kanniyakumari110
Tenkasi103
Nagapattinam99
Karur88
Namakkal83
Erode75
Vellore71
Thiruvarur67
Pudukkottai53
Sivaganga46
Tirupathur45
Krishnagiri43
The Nilgiris17
Dharmapuri15

8,32,415 549

5,314 173

8,14,811 713

12,290 9

DistrictCases
North West5,463
Central4,817
West4,768
New Delhi3,405
North3,059
East2,472
South East2,446
South West2,391
South2,329
North East1,914
Shahdara1,580

6,33,049 228

2,147 187

6,20,128 405

10,774 10

DistrictCases
Gautam Buddha Nagar1,119
Agra933
Ghaziabad794
Meerut504
Lucknow386
Saharanpur298
Kanpur Nagar286
Moradabad252
Varanasi243
Hapur225
Aligarh215
Basti214
Amethi206
Rampur203
Jaunpur194
Firozabad190
Barabanki168
Gorakhpur166
Bulandshahr166
Siddharth Nagar159
Ghazipur159
Bijnor157
Deoria143
Azamgarh138
Sant Kabeer Nagar132
Mathura129
Ayodhya120
Muzaffarnagar117
Sambhal116
Sultanpur97
Ambedkar Nagar92
Maharajganj85
Amroha80
Rae Bareli78
Bahraich73
Kheri72
Kannauj69
Baghpat68
Kushi Nagar67
Bhadohi60
Ballia60
Gonda59
Etah52
Hardoi49
Balrampur49
Mau48
Mainpuri46
Etawah46
Hathras43
Unnao42
Jalaun41
Jhansi41
Shamli40
Chandauli38
Auraiya37
Farrukhabad36
Sitapur32
Prayagraj30
Banda27
Shahjahanpur25
Shravasti23
Budaun23
Mirzapur22
Bareilly17
Kasganj16
Pratapgarh15
Pilibhit15
Sonbhadra10
Kaushambi6
Kanpur Dehat4
Chitrakoot4
Lalitpur3
Hamirpur3
Mahoba3
Fatehpur3

5,97,628 390

7,873 299

5,81,164 682

8,591 7

DistrictCases
Kolkata2,777
Howrah1,435
24 Paraganas North1,031
Hooghly604
24 Paraganas South281
Maldah235
Dinajpur Uttar216
Coochbehar210
Birbhum206
Medinipur West159
Medinipur East153
Nadia139
Purba Bardhaman130
Murshidabad125
Bankura116
Darjeeling97
Jalpaiguri88
Paschim Bardhaman70
Purulia66
Dinajpur Dakshin50
Alipurduar39
Kalimpong18
Jhargram9

5,66,482 409

6,675 106

5,49,727 509

10,080 6

DistrictCases
Ganjam581
Jajapur322
Khordha238
Baleshwar190
Kendrapara164
Cuttack155
Bhadrak137
Balangir129
Puri103
Sundargarh102
Jagatsinghapur91
Nayagarh86
Mayurbhanj73
Nuapada69
Gajapati61
Dhenkanal36
Boudh34
Kendujhar34
Deogarh33
Kalahandi33
Sonepur29
Kandhamal28
Anugul26
Malkangiri20
Bargarh16
Koraput16
Sambalpur16
Jharsuguda8
Nabarangpur2
Rayagada2

3,33,723 157

1,500 113

3,30,321 270

1,902

DistrictCases
Jaipur2,177
Jodhpur1,748
Udaipur724
Bharatpur563
Kota503
Nagaur500
Ajmer379
Dungarpur374
Pali352
Jhalawar329
Bhilwara250
Sikar231
Chittorgarh188
Tonk171
Jalore164
Rajsamand140
Sirohi130
Bikaner112
Banswara91
Alwar90
Churu81
Jhunjhunu64
Dausa61
Dholpur60
Baran59
Jaisalmer53
Barmer34
Hanumangarh31
SawaiMadhopur26
Karauli17
Pratapgarh14
Ganganagar8
Bundi5

3,15,816 213

4,077 227

3,08,985 438

2,754 2

DistrictCases
Bilaspur100
Korba100
Mungeli87
Baloda Bazar85
Jashpur77
Janjgir-Champa56
Mahasamund54
Rajnandgaon52
Kabirdham52
Raigarh47
Raipur46
Balod41
Korea39
Durg31
Bemetara21
Kanker19
Balrampur17
Surguja14
Gariyaband10
Surajpur9
Dhamtari6
Bijapur2
Bastar2
Dantewada0
Kondagaon0
Narayanpur0
Sukma0

2,94,949 594

5,798 134

2,85,566 718

3,585 10

DistrictCases
Hyderabad2,475
Ranga Reddy183
Suryapet87
Jagitial77
Nizamabad76
MedchalMalkajgiri75
Mancherial43
YadadriBhuvanagiri40
Jogulamba Gadwal40
Vikarabad40
Nalgonda33
Warangal Urban32
Mahabubnagar30
Sangareddy26
Khammam26
Adilabad22
Nirmal21
Karimnagar17
RajannaSircilla16
Medak11
Kamareddy11
Mahabubabad10
Jayashankar Bhupalapally9
Nagarkurnool8
Kumuram Bheem Asifabad8
Jangoan8
Siddipet7
Peddapalli5
Bhadradri Kothagudem5
Warangal Rural4
Mulugu3
Narayanpet3
Wanaparthy1

2,92,621 226

3,920 1

2,87,117 224

1,584 1

DistrictCases
Gurugram2,950
Faridabad867
Sonipat404
Rohtak145
Palwal120
Jhajjar114
Karnal104
Hisar98
Ambala93
Panipat78
Nuh68
Bhiwani60
Rewari56
Kurukshetra55
Sirsa50
Kaithal48
Mahendragarh47
CharkiDadri43
Panchkula39
Fatehabad38
Jind38
Yamunanagar19

2,66,686 105

1,734 103

2,61,955 204

2,997 4

DistrictCases
Patna279
Bhagalpur266
Rohtas256
Khagaria253
Begusarai243
Madhubani199
Munger188
Jehanabad178
Katihar175
Darbhanga143
Samastipur139
Siwan139
PurbiChamparan138
Purnia135
Banka134
Buxar134
Nalanda123
Gopalganj123
Nawada122
Sheikhpura118
Gaya115
Kaimur (bhabua)105
Bhojpur103
Saran101
Muzaffarpur96
Saharsa88
Supaul87
Vaishali87
Madhepura82
Kishanganj75
Aurangabad75
Sitamarhi73
Lakhisarai72
Araria68
Pashchim Champaran57
Arwal52
Jamui47
Sheohar20

2,58,176 185

3,143 98

2,53,569 280

1,464 3

DistrictCases
Ahmadabad17,125
Surat2,311
Vadodara1,555
Gandhinagar410
Mahesana159
Banas Kantha147
Bhavnagar146
Rajkot135
Arvalli134
Mahisagar125
Anand107
PanchMahals107
Patan105
SabarKantha101
Kachchh99
Kheda98
Jamnagar63
Bharuch56
Botad55
Surendranagar55
Valsad47
GirSomnath45
Dohad43
Chhotaudepur37
Naysari35
Junagadh31
Narmada25
DevbhumiDwarka22
Amreli16
Porbandar11
Tapi6
Dang5
Morbi4

2,57,342 490

5,748 219

2,47,223 707

4,371 2

DistrictCases
Indore3,839
Bhopal1,880
Ujjain799
Burhanpur351
Neemuch319
Jabalpur276
East Nimar266
Sagar228
Gwalior211
Khargone196
Dewas140
Dhar132
Mandsaur112
Morena109
Bhind87
Raisen71
Barwani60
Ratlam51
Rewa39
Shajapur39
Hoshangabad37
Vidisha37
Chhatarpur35
Betul35
Rajgarh31
Dindori29
Sheopur26
Damoh26
Satna24
Anuppur22
Panna20
Tikamgarh18
Sidhi17
Narsinghpur17
Chhindwara16
Agar Malwa15
Mandla15
Shivpuri15
Jhabua14
Shandol14
Singrauli13
Ashoknagar13
Datia12
Sehore12
Umaria10
Balaghat9
Guna8
Harda4
Alirajpur3
Katni3
Seoni2
Niwari0

2,52,466 280

5,008 724

2,43,688 997

3,770 7

DistrictCases
Kamrup Metro276
Golaghat203
Nagaon143
Hojai89
Dima Hasao86
Karimganj85
Tinsukia84
Cachar80
Dibrugarh61
Hailakandi57
Lakhimpur57
Marigaon50
Dhemaji47
Kamrup42
Kokrajhar37
Dhubri30
Charaideo29
Barpeta28
Udalguri28
Sonitpur27
Jorhat24
Nalbari23
Darrang20
Sivasagar20
Goalpara19
Biswanath16
Baksa14
KarbiAnglong13
Bongaigaon12
Chirang6
West KarbiAnglong5
South SalmaraMancachar4
Majuli2

2,16,919 32

2,663 65

2,13,179 95

1,077 2

DistrictCases
Amritsar485
Jalandhar297
Ludhiana293
Tarn Taran163
Gurdaspur154
Hoshiarpur140
S.A.S Nagar137
Patiala132
Sangrur107
Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar (Nawanshahr)99
Pathankot86
Rupnagar (Ropar)74
Faridkot74
Sri Muktsar Sahib71
Moga65
Bathinda60
Fatehgarh Sahib57
Fazilka53
Firozepur50
Kapurthala44
Mansa31
Barnala25

1,71,136 199

2,405 7

1,63,211 202

5,520 4

DistrictCases
Anantnag395
Srinagar300
Kulgam295
Baramulla271
Shopian255
Kupwara231
Bandipora175
Udhampur155
Ramban151
Jammu138
Budgam110
Pulwama108
Kathua53
Rajouri39
Ganderbal37
Poonch35
Doda27
Reasi26
Samba25
Kishtwar10
Mirpur0
Muzaffarabad0

1,23,647 109

1,099 4

1,20,625 113

1,923

DistrictCases
East Singhbum170
Ranchi148
Hazaribagh110
Garhwa80
Ramgarh75
Koderma58
Simdega48
Dhanbad32
Gumla28
Palamu27
West Singhbhum21
SaraikelaKharsawan20
Giridih19
Bokaro16
Latehar14
Khunti10
Lohardaga8
Deoghar5
Dumka5
Pakur4
Jamtara2
Godda2
Chatra1
Sahebganj0

1,18,012 125

1,102 45

1,15,853 170

1,057

DistrictCases
Dehradun370
Nainital323
Tehri Garhwal110
Haridwar94
Udam Singh Nagar83
Almora71
Champawat45
Pithoragarh43
Chamoli36
PauriGarhwal36
Bageshwar31
Rudraprayag30
Uttar Kashi24

95,192 153

2,005 13

91,565 137

1,622 3

DistrictCases
Hamirpur117
Kangra105
Una41
Solan32
Chamba29
Bilaspur21
Mandi21
Sirmaur11
Shimla10
Kullu4
Kinnaur2
Lahaul And Spiti0

57,082 63

575 9

55,540 72

967

DistrictCases
South Goa69
North Goa57

52,657 87

865 3

51,036 84

756

DistrictCases
Pondicherry111
Mahe4
Karaikal2
Yanam0

38,737 31

296 1

37,798 32

643

DistrictCases
Dhalai196
Sepahijala174
Gomati74
South Tripura53
Unakoti49
West Tripura45
Khowai24
North Tripura14

33,339 3

37 1

32,911 4

391

DistrictCases
Churachandpur32
Kangpokpi26
Imphal West21
Thoubal18
Imphal East10
Tengnoupal9
Bishnupur7
Senapati6
Chandel5
Kamjong5
Ukhrul4
Jiribam3
Pherzawl3
Kakching2
Tamenglong2
Noney1

28,919 19

244 9

28,308 10

367

DistrictCases
Chandigarh313

20,623 28

171 14

20,122 42

330

DistrictCases
Changlang31
Papum Pare8
Lohit3
Namsai2
West Siang1
East Siang1
Upper Siang1
Tawang1
PakkeKessang1
West Kameng0
Upper Subansiri0
Tirap0
Siang0
Shi Yomi0
Anjaw0
Lower Subansiri0
Lower Dibang Valley0
Longding0
Leparada0
KurungKumey0
KraDaadi0
Kamle0
East Kameng0
Dibang Valley0
Lower Siang0

16,815

46 6

16,713 6

56

DistrictCases
East Khasi Hills22
West Garo Hills5
South West Garo Hills4
North Garo Hills1
West Jaintia Hills1
West Khasi Hills1
East Garo Hills0
East Jaintia Hills0
Ribhoi0
South Garo Hills0
South West Khasi Hills0

13,717 7

133 0

13,440 7

144

DistrictCases
Dimapur20
Mon8
Kohima7
Kiphire3
Tuensang3
Peren2
Phek1
Longleng0
Mokokchung0
Wokha0
Zunheboto0

12,067 1

106 6

11,873 7

88

DistrictCases
Kargil77
LehLadakh43

9,668 6

76 3

9,463 9

129

DistrictCases
East District3
South District3
North District0
West District0

6,057 5

160 4

5,766 1

131

DistrictCases
South Andamans33
Nicobars1
North And Middle Andaman1

4,991 2

29 1

4,900 3

62

DistrictCases
Kolasib11
Aizawl10
Mamit8
Lawngtlai2
Lunglei2
Saitual1
Champhai0
Hnahthial0
Khawzawl0
Saiha0
Serchhip0

4,346 12

69 2

4,268 10

9

DistrictCases
Dadra And Nagar Haveli20

3,393 2

11 2

3,380

2

DistrictCases
Lakshadweep District0

30 9

30 9

0

0

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