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Global Climate Conversation: Key Moments From Decades Of Climate Conferences

26th Conference of the Parties (COP) will be held in Glasgow, Scotland starting October 31. Key points to be discussed include emissions pledges, climate financing, and phasing out coal use

Global Climate Conversation: Key Moments From Decades Of Climate Conferences
Highlights
  • The first conference of parties (COP) was held in Berlin in 1995
  • The Paris Agreement was adopted in 2015 with a call for emissions pledges
  • In 2020, the annual COP was postponed because of the coronavirus pandemic

This year’s U.N. climate conference in Glasgow, Scotland, marks the 26th time since 1995 that world leaders have gathered to confront global warming. But the realization that industrial activity was causing climate change, and discussions about what to do about it, began much earlier. Here are some key moments in the global climate conversation:

1800s – Throughout the 1800s, several European scientists study how different gases and vapours can trap heat in Earth’s atmosphere. In the 1890s, Swedish scientist Svante Arrhenius calculates the temperature effect of a doubling of atmospheric CO2, showing that burning fossil fuels would likely warm the planet.

1938 – By compiling historical weather data, British engineer Guy Callendar for the first time shows the planet’s temperatures are rising in the modern era. He correlates the temperature trends with measured rises in atmospheric CO2, and proposes the temperature change is linked.

Also Read: Experts Explain What Is Causing Heavy Rains That Killed Dozens In Uttarakhand And Kerala Over The Past Few Days

1958 – American scientist Charles David Keeling starts systematically measuring atmospheric CO2 levels over Hawaii’s Mauna Loa Observatory. His findings result in the “Keeling Curve,” a graph showing CO2 concentrations steadily increasing.

1988 – James Hansen, an American climate scientist, testifies before Congress that the planet is warming because of a human-caused buildup of greenhouse gasses, and notes that this is already altering the climate and weather.

1990 – At the U.N.’s so-called Second World Climate Conference, scientists highlight the risks of global warming to nature and society. British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher says binding emissions targets are needed.

1992 – Countries sign onto the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change at the Rio Earth Summit. The UNFCCC’s goal is to control emissions to prevent extreme climate change, but it also enshrines the idea of “common but differentiated responsibilities,” meaning developed countries must do more because they are responsible for most historical emissions. The treaty does not set out binding emissions targets.

1995 – UNFCCC treaty members gather for a first “conference of parties,” or COP, in Berlin. The final document calls for legally binding emissions targets.

Also Read: Over 99.9% Scientific Papers Agree Humans Caused Climate Change, Study

1997 – At COP3 in Kyoto, Japan, parties agree to the first treaty that requires specific emissions reductions. Under the Kyoto Protocol, developed countries are obligated to reduce emissions between 2008 and 2012 from 1990 levels, with different limits assigned to different countries. In the United States, key Senate Republicans denounce the accord as “dead on arrival.”

2001 – U.S President George W. Bush takes office and calls the Kyoto Protocol “fatally flawed,” with his rejection signaling the country’s effective exit.

2005 – The Kyoto Protocol goes into effect after Russia ratifies it, fulfilling the requirement that at least 55 countries accounting for at least 55% of emissions ratify the treaty.

2007 – Delegates agree at COP13 in Bali to work on a new binding agreement to include both developed and developing countries.

2009 – COP15 talks in Copenhagen nearly collapse amid wrangling over binding commitments for when the Kyoto Protocol expires. Instead of creating a new framework, as proposed by the Bali Roadmap, countries vote to “take note of” a nonbinding political statement.

2010 – COP16 in Cancun again fails to set new binding emissions targets. The Cancun Agreements, however, establish a Green Climate Fund to aid developing nations with adaptation and mitigation, and set a goal of limiting global warming to 2 degrees Celsius above the preindustrial average.

Also Read: Climate Change And UN Panel’s Five Possible Temperature Rise Scenarios Explained

2011 – COP17 talks in Durban, South Africa falter after China, the United States and India refuse to sign onto binding emissions cuts before 2015. Instead, the UNFCCC parties agree to extend the Kyoto Protocol through 2017.

2012 – As Russia, Japan, and New Zealand resist new emissions targets that do not extend to developing nations, countries agree at COP18 in Doha to extend the Kyoto Protocol through 2020.

2013 – At COP19 in Warsaw, representatives from poorer nations walk out for several hours over the lack of agreement on how to handle climate-related losses and damage. A watered-down deal is eventually reached.

2015 – Global warming passes 1 degree Celsius. Extreme weather events including floods, droughts and wildfires continue to get more frequent and more severe around the globe, and countries are increasingly confronted with these immediate climate change threats.

2015 – The Paris Agreement is the first global pact to call for emissions pledges from both developed and developing countries, who are asked to pledge Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), with increasing ambition every five years. Signatories promise to try to keep global warming within 1.5 degrees C of the preindustrial average.

Also Read: Study Shows Young Generations Are Severely Threatened By Climate Change

2017 – President Donald Trump calls the Paris treaty bad for the economy and says the United States will withdraw. That becomes official in 2020.

2018 – Teen activist Greta Thunberg captures global attention while protesting outside Swedish parliament, and over time rallies youths across the world to join her Fridays for the Future movement to demand climate action.

2019 – U.N. Secretary-General Antonio Guterres calls the lack of ambition shown at COP25 in Madrid a lost opportunity.

2020 – The annual COP is postponed because of the coronavirus pandemic.

2021 – One of U.S. President Joe Biden’s first acts in office is to rejoin the Paris Agreement.

2021 – COP26 is scheduled to go ahead Oct. 31-Nov. 12 in Glasgow. Key points to be discussed include emissions pledges, climate financing, and phasing out coal use.

Also Read: Climate Change Causing Drop In Brightness Of Earth: Study

(Except for the headline, this story has not been edited by NDTV staff and is published from a syndicated feed.)

NDTV – Dettol have been working towards a clean and healthy India since 2014 via Banega Swachh India initiative, which is helmed by Campaign Ambassador Amitabh Bachchan. The campaign aims to highlight the inter-dependency of humans and the environment, and of humans on one another with the focus on One Health, One Planet, One Future – Leaving No One Behind. It stresses on the need to take care of, and consider, everyone’s health in India – especially vulnerable communities – the LGBTQ populationindigenous people, India’s different tribes, ethnic and linguistic minorities, people with disabilities, migrants, geographically remote populations, gender and sexual minorities. In wake of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the need for WASH (WaterSanitation and Hygiene) is reaffirmed as handwashing is one of the ways to prevent Coronavirus infection and other diseases. The campaign will continue to raise awareness on the same along with focussing on the importance of nutrition and healthcare for women and children, fight malnutrition, mental wellbeing, self care, science and health, adolescent health & gender awareness. Along with the health of people, the campaign has realised the need to also take care of the health of the eco-system. Our environment is fragile due to human activity,  that is not only over-exploiting available resources, but also generating immense pollution as a result of using and extracting those resources. The imbalance has also led to immense biodiversity loss that has caused one of the biggest threats to human survival – climate change. It has now been described as a “code red for humanity.” The campaign will continue to cover issues like air pollutionwaste managementplastic banmanual scavenging and sanitation workers and menstrual hygiene. Banega Swasth India will also be taking forward the dream of Swasth Bharat, the campaign feels that only a Swachh or clean India where toilets are used and open defecation free (ODF) status achieved as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2014, can eradicate diseases like diahorrea and the country can become a Swasth or healthy India. 

World

26,06,51,261Cases
22,14,73,133Active
3,39,88,797Recovered
51,89,331Deaths
Coronavirus has spread to 196 countries. The total confirmed cases worldwide are 26,06,51,261 and 51,89,331 have died; 22,14,73,133 are active cases and 3,39,88,797 have recovered as on November 27, 2021 at 4:06 am.

India

3,45,63,749 8,318Cases
1,07,0193,114Active
3,39,88,797 10,967Recovered
4,67,933 465Deaths
In India, there are 3,45,63,749 confirmed cases including 4,67,933 deaths. The number of active cases is 1,07,019 and 3,39,88,797 have recovered as on November 27, 2021 at 2:30 am.

State Details

State Cases Active Recovered Deaths
Maharashtra

66,33,105

12,153 699

64,80,061 665

1,40,891 34

Kerala

51,24,618 4,677

50,109 2,343

50,35,384 6,632

39,125 388

Karnataka

29,94,963 402

6,640 119

29,50,130 277

38,193 6

Tamil Nadu

27,23,991 746

8,418 24

26,79,130 759

36,443 11

Andhra Pradesh

20,72,198 184

2,163 31

20,55,603 214

14,432 1

Uttar Pradesh

17,10,368 8

91 0

16,87,368 8

22,909

West Bengal

16,13,451 710

7,847 20

15,86,165 721

19,439 9

Delhi

14,40,807 23

301 8

14,15,411 31

25,095

Odisha

10,48,228 219

2,216 5

10,37,609 222

8,403 2

Chhattisgarh

10,06,706 33

319 7

9,92,794 26

13,593

Rajasthan

9,54,715 21

174 19

9,45,586 2

8,955

Gujarat

8,27,354 27

308 7

8,16,954 34

10,092

Madhya Pradesh

7,93,097 9

103 1

7,82,466 8

10,528

Haryana

7,71,643 21

158 2

7,61,431 19

10,054

Bihar

7,26,209 5

45 1

7,16,501 6

9,663

Telangana

6,75,319 171

3,534 3

6,67,798 167

3,987 1

Assam

6,16,312 175

2,791 44

6,07,435 219

6,086

Punjab

6,03,173 41

335 21

5,86,245 18

16,593 2

Jharkhand

3,49,196 12

109 0

3,43,947 12

5,140

Uttarakhand

3,44,169 13

144 13

3,36,618 26

7,407

Jammu And Kashmir

3,36,237 174

1,719 13

3,30,048 157

4,470 4

Himachal Pradesh

2,26,859 102

827 8

2,22,190 107

3,842 3

Goa

1,78,799 34

266 11

1,75,152 22

3,381 1

Mizoram

1,33,921 359

4,227 111

1,29,206 469

488 1

Puducherry

1,28,825 31

321 3

1,26,632 28

1,872

Manipur

1,25,098 28

674 13

1,22,456 39

1,968 2

Tripura

84,771 10

80 4

83,871 6

820

Meghalaya

84,394 16

335 4

82,591 20

1,468

Chandigarh

65,438 8

48 7

64,570 1

820

Arunachal Pradesh

55,260 2

33 1

54,947 3

280

Sikkim

32,207 9

119 6

31,685 15

403

Nagaland

32,096 4

136 5

31,264 9

696

Ladakh

21,467 32

243 8

21,011 24

213

Dadra And Nagar Haveli

10,683

1 0

10,678

4

Lakshadweep

10,394 11

29 11

10,314

51

Andaman And Nicobar Islands

7,678 1

3 0

7,546 1

129

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