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Scientists Detect Long-Lived Antibodies In Blood, Saliva Samples From COVID-19 Patients

According to the researchers, these antibodies could be detected at similar levels in both blood and saliva, suggesting that saliva could be used as an alternative bio fluid for antibody testing

Scientists Detect Long-Lived Antibodies In Blood, Saliva Samples From COVID-19 Patients
Highlights
  • The study was published in the journal Science
  • The persistence of antibodies in the blood and saliva has been observed
  • These antibodies target the novel coronavirus

Boston: Scientists, including one of Indian-origin, have documented the persistence of antibodies that target the novel coronavirus in the blood and saliva of patients with COVID-19 at least three months after symptom onset, a finding that may lead to alternative methods of testing for the viral infection. The study, published in the journal Science, points to the IgG class of antibodies as the longest-lasting antibodies detectable in the patients during this time frame and may serve as promising targets to detect and evaluate immune responses against the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

According to the researchers, including those from the Harvard Medical School in the US, these antibodies could be detected at similar levels in both blood and saliva, suggesting that saliva could be used as an alternative biofluid for antibody testing.

In the research, Anita Iyer and her team measured antibody responses in the blood of 343 patients with COVID-19 for up to 122 days after symptom onset and compared these responses to those of 1,548 control individuals sampled before the pandemic. The scientists focused only on antibodies specific to the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein which it uses to enter host cells.

Also Read: Hospitalised COVID-19 Patients Are Younger, Healthier Than Influenza Patients, Study Finds

They estimated sensitivities of the antibody types IgG, IgA, and IgM at 95 per cent, 90 per cent and 81 per cent, respectively, for detecting infected individuals between 15 to 28 weeks after symptom onset.

Among these antibodies, the study noted that spike protein-specific IgM and IgA were short-lived, dropping beneath detection levels at around 49 and 71 days, respectively, after the appearance of symptoms.

However, it noted that the spike protein-targeted IgG responses decayed slowly over a period of 90 days, with only three individuals losing them within this timeframe. According to the researchers, the levels of spike protein-specific IgG strongly correlated with levels of neutralising antibodies in the patients.

They also did not observe cross-reactivity of any SARS-CoV-2-targeting antibodies with other “common cold” coronaviruses. Another study published in the journal Science also found that while IgA and IgM antibodies targeting the spike protein’s receptor-binding domain rapidly decayed, the IgG type remained relatively stable for up to 105 days after symptom onset in 402 patients with COVID-19.

Also Read: Indian Population Still Far From Achieving Herd Immunity Shows ICMR’s Second Sero Survey: Health Minister Harsh Vardhan

In this study, researchers including Baweleta Isho from the University of Toronto in Canada, detected spike protein-specific antibodies in the saliva, as well as the blood, of these patients. They charted the patients’ antibody responses from three to 115 days after symptom onset and compared their profiles with 339 pre-pandemic controls.

The scientists found that patients with COVID-19 showed peak IgG levels at 16 to 30 days after the appearance of symptoms. According to the researchers, the levels of all spike protein-specific IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies in the blood positively correlated with levels observed in matched saliva samples.

Given that the virus can also be measured in saliva by PCR, using saliva as a biofluid for both virus and antibody measurements may have some diagnostic value, they wrote in the study.

(Except for the headline, this story has not been edited by NDTV staff and is published from a syndicated feed.) 

NDTV – Dettol Banega Swasth India campaign is an extension of the five-year-old Banega Swachh India initiative helmed by Campaign Ambassador Amitabh Bachchan. It aims to spread awareness about critical health issues facing the country. In wake of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the need for WASH (WaterSanitation and Hygiene) is reaffirmed as handwashing is one of the ways to prevent Coronavirus infection and other diseases. The campaign highlights the importance of nutrition and healthcare for women and children to prevent maternal and child mortality, fight malnutrition, stunting, wasting, anaemia and disease prevention through vaccines. Importance of programmes like Public Distribution System (PDS), Mid-day Meal Scheme, POSHAN Abhiyan and the role of Aganwadis and ASHA workers are also covered. Only a Swachh or clean India where toilets are used and open defecation free (ODF) status achieved as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2014, can eradicate diseases like diahorrea and become a Swasth or healthy India. The campaign will continue to cover issues like air pollutionwaste managementplastic banmanual scavenging and sanitation workers and menstrual hygiene

World

26,58,63,058Cases
22,65,37,591Active
3,40,69,608Recovered
52,55,859Deaths
Coronavirus has spread to 196 countries. The total confirmed cases worldwide are 26,58,63,058 and 52,55,859 have died; 22,65,37,591 are active cases and 3,40,69,608 have recovered as on December 6, 2021 at 5:12 am.

India

3,46,41,561 8,306Cases
98,416739Active
3,40,69,608 8,834Recovered
4,73,537 211Deaths
In India, there are 3,46,41,561 confirmed cases including 4,73,537 deaths. The number of active cases is 98,416 and 3,40,69,608 have recovered as on December 6, 2021 at 2:30 am.

State Details

State Cases Active Recovered Deaths
Maharashtra

66,38,778 707

10,826 23

64,86,782 677

1,41,170 7

Kerala

51,65,921 4,450

44,110 317

50,80,211 4,606

41,600 161

Karnataka

29,98,099 456

7,161 120

29,52,708 330

38,230 6

Tamil Nadu

27,30,516 724

8,041 29

26,85,946 743

36,529 10

Andhra Pradesh

20,73,730 154

2,122 27

20,57,156 177

14,452 4

Uttar Pradesh

17,10,475 24

134 18

16,87,430 6

22,911

West Bengal

16,19,257 620

7,639 17

15,92,074 627

19,544 10

Delhi

14,41,358 63

370 48

14,15,890 15

25,098

Odisha

10,50,249 189

2,154 25

10,39,673 212

8,422 2

Chhattisgarh

10,06,967 25

330 4

9,93,044 21

13,593

Rajasthan

9,54,891 17

221 8

9,45,715 9

8,955

Gujarat

8,27,707 48

349 23

8,17,263 24

10,095 1

Madhya Pradesh

7,93,241 9

133 9

7,82,580 18

10,528

Haryana

7,71,819 22

185 5

7,61,580 17

10,054

Bihar

7,26,237 6

26 4

7,14,121 2

12,090

Telangana

6,76,943 156

3,787 8

6,69,157 147

3,999 1

Assam

6,17,576 101

2,490 61

6,08,966 158

6,120 4

Punjab

6,03,488 37

361 14

5,86,519 23

16,608

Jharkhand

3,49,342 25

127 12

3,44,074 13

5,141

Uttarakhand

3,44,353 8

174 1

3,36,768 7

7,411

Jammu And Kashmir

3,37,807 161

1,706 25

3,31,620 184

4,481 2

Himachal Pradesh

2,27,518 35

755 45

2,22,911 80

3,852

Goa

1,79,174 49

412 18

1,75,375 31

3,387

Mizoram

1,36,454 92

3,101 454

1,32,846 544

507 2

Puducherry

1,29,085 29

280 14

1,26,930 43

1,875

Manipur

1,25,360 32

353 9

1,23,025 40

1,982 1

Tripura

84,858 5

90 1

83,943 6

825

Meghalaya

84,583 9

244 2

82,864 11

1,475

Chandigarh

65,488 7

58 2

64,610 9

820

Arunachal Pradesh

55,293 5

36 4

54,977 1

280

Sikkim

32,369 10

215 2

31,749 8

405

Nagaland

32,136

117 9

31,320 9

699

Ladakh

21,714 31

295 3

21,204 34

215

Dadra And Nagar Haveli

10,683

0 0

10,679

4

Lakshadweep

10,404

10 0

10,343

51

Andaman And Nicobar Islands

7,688

4 2

7,555 2

129

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