Vaccine Explainer: How Does Immunisation Protect Against A Disease?Why do we need a vaccine to fight a disease, what is the role of vaccine and how does it work. Here’s an explainer to give you a quick lowdown

New Delhi: The history of vaccine holds a very unique story. It started back in 1796 when Edward Jenner, an English country doctor from Gloucestershire, administered the world’s first vaccination as a preventive treatment for smallpox, a disease that had killed millions of people.

The experiment started, when Edward Jenner, who was still a medical student, noticed that milkmaids who had contracted a disease called cowpox, which caused blistering on cow’s udders, did not catch the disease smallpox. So, in the month of May, 1796, Edward Jenner performed a small scientific experiment, he took fluid from a cowpox blister and scratched it into the skin of an eight-year-old boy known as James Phipps. A single blister rose up on the spot, but the boy soon recovered. Few days later, Mr Jenner inoculated the boy again, this time with smallpox matter, and no disease developed. Mr Jenner’s theory of artificially inducing the immunity in human body proved correct and vaccination was born.

This technique, known as variolation, involved deliberately infecting a patient with a mild dose of the disease or the virus in the expectation that it would provide protection from a more severe infection in future.

Soon after the experiment was a success, doctors all over Europe adopted Jenner’s innovative technique. In the 19th and 20th centuries, scientists following the same model developed new vaccines to fight numerous deadly diseases, including polio, whooping cough, measles, tetanus, yellow fever, typhus, and hepatitis B and many others. From then to now, vaccines have become an integral part of everyone’s lives, experts say that vaccines are as important to one’s overall health as diet and exercise.

Also Read: Coronavirus Explainer: Who Should Not Get Vaccinated? What Are The Possible Adverse Reactions And Other Questions Answered

To understand how vaccines work, it is important to know how our body’s immune system works because vaccine harness the natural activity of the immune system itself. Explaining how the natural immune system of our bodies fight any germs or disease, Dr Sharad Joshi, Pulmonologist Special, Principal Consultant at Max Hospitals says,

When our body is attacked with some or the other germs, the first natural barrier that our bodies have to fight it are skin, mucus, and cilia (microscopic hairs that move debris away from the lungs), all work as physical barriers to prevent pathogens or germs from entering the body in the first place. But sometimes the disease-causing bacteria does get through these barriers. That’s when the work of our immune system begins.

Dr Joshi said that human body’s immune system is very strong and is the best way to fight any virus or disease. He added,

The immune system is quick to recognise the foreign particles in the body as invaders. This is because the proteins or sugars on the bacteria’s surface has different shapes to any of the ones in the human body. Once the immune system sees the invaders, it triggers a complex chain of events, involving many of the white cells working together. One type of white blood cells is able to make antibodies to fight the invaders. Antibodies can stick to the proteins or sugars on the bacteria’s surface and can help kill the bacteria or disable them.

Despite our immune system being so strong, the human body can still get infected with the germs and eventually develop a disease. Explaining that, Dr Joshi said,

Not all antibodies will work to kill the bacteria. Until unless the antibody is in the right and exact shape of the virus or germ in the body, it will not disable or kill the virus or germ. Our bodies have a library of billions of white blood cells each of which can only make one shape of the antibody. Now, by the time our body’s natural immune system produces antibodies of right shape, it can take several days. By this time there could be billions of disease-causing bacteria in our body and if the virus is of a nature that it multiplies at a faster rate it will affect our body completely and that’s why we tend to fall ill or get infected with the disease.

Dr Joshi further added,

However, once the right cells are activated, they can quickly divide and turn into a production line, making masses of antibodies that stick to the bacteria. Eventually our body gets rid of all the bacteria and we recover.

Highlighting the important role of the antibodies, he added,

Antibodies remain in our body’s blood and some turn into memory cells, so that, if those specific bacteria ever attack your body again, our immune system will be quick to produce the right antibody, which will eventually help fight the disease.

Why Do We Need Vaccines?

Vaccine Explainer: How Does Immunisation Protect Against A Disease?
Dr Katherine O’brien from WHO explains why do we need a vaccine

Talking about vaccines and what it actually does to protect the human body from the disease, Dr Katherine O’brien, Director, Department of Immunisation, Vaccines and Biologicals, from World Health Organisation (WHO) said,

We need vaccines simply to train or prepare our immune system towards a particular virus or disease, so that, whenever our body is infected with the germ, it can quickly fight it without making us very ill. In simple terms, vaccines are designed to prevent disease, rather than treat a disease once you have caught it.

Talking about vaccines development and how they are prepared, Dr Katherine O’brien said,

Whenever a vaccine is developed for a particular disease, it works on one thumb rule – to put A part of the germ or activate it in our body, which our body can recognise and develop and immune response.

Talking about coronavirus and its vaccine development, Dr Katherine O’brien added,

There are different approaches to making coronavirus vaccine around the globe. All of the vaccines that are currently developed or are in the making are trying to do one thing – they are trying to get that part of the virus – the spike protein into our body, so that it can develop specific antibodies against the spike protein.

Highlighting the two big categories of approaches being used for COVID-19 vaccines, Dr O’brien said that the first approach is to simply put the vaccine part of the spike protein or spike protein itself into the human body. And the second category is to give instructions to our body’s cells via vaccine on how to make spike protein and let the body produce the spike protein itself for fighting the virus.

She added,

The first category, where we actually give the part of the spike protein or germ to our body, is the method, we have used for developing a lot of the other diseases vaccine. However, the second approach, where we have developed a vaccine that gives instructions to our cells to make spike protein is the new category all together. And it is the very important strategy, as using this approach, we can develop vaccines very quickly for future diseases, it is also more efficient way as we are using the body’s own ability to produce protein, it is a very powerful tool.

Busting the common myth that the vaccine will infect the person with the virus as it uses a part of virus in it, Dr O’brien said,

In all cases, the virus or particles given are so weakened that it doesn’t cause disease in us. So, we will not get the disease from getting the vaccine, even if it uses the weakened part of that very particular germ that causes the disease.

COVID-19 Vaccines And The Technology Being Used

Vaccine Explainer: How Does Immunisation Protect Against A Disease?
Vaccines made are based on one simple technique, which is known as variolation that involves deliberately infecting a patient with a mild dose of the disease or the virus in the expectation that it would provide protection from a more severe infection in future

The Coronavirus vaccine developed by Oxford-AstraZeneca is called ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or AZD1222 or Covishield in India. The ChAdOx1 vaccine uses a chimpanzee adenovirus. This is a harmless, weakened adenovirus that usually causes the common cold in chimpanzees. It is altered to use the blueprint of COVID-19 and because it looks like Coronavirus, the body’s immune system then begins to produce immune response.

On the other hand, Bharat Biotech’s Covaxin is an inactivated vaccine. As part of the process, disease carrying virus, in the case of COVID-19 it is SARS-CoV-2, is inactivated or killed and then injected.

Whereas, mRNA vaccines being produced by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna works on the other approach, where instead of putting a weakened or inactivated virus into our bodies to trigger an immune response, mRNA or messenger-RNA vaccines use specific parts of the infectious agent like its protein, sugar, or coating. This agent then gives a message to our cells to make a protein or even just a piece of a protein which are like those of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The protein then triggers an immune response inside our bodies. That immune response, which produces antibodies, is what protects us from getting infected if the real virus enters our bodies.

Also Read: Coronavirus Explained: What Is mRNA COVID-19 Vaccine Technology?

Safety Of Vaccines

Vaccine Explainer: How Does Immunisation Protect Against A Disease?
WHO says that there is a very strong system in place to both look at the safety and assure safety before the vaccine is authorised for the use

Dr Katherine O’brien added,

The vaccines we have that have been used in the hundreds of billions of doses for decades and in fact for centuries for some of the diseases have been studied and evaluated thoroughly for its safety and for the impact that they have on the body. We have the safety system for all the vaccines that is constantly looking at the information about the performance of the vaccines and picking up any issues that might arise in the future. So, I think, we all can be really well assured that we have a very strong system in place to both look at the safety and assure safety before the vaccine is authorised for the use.

WHO says that some vaccines require multiple doses, given weeks or months apart, this is sometimes needed to allow for the production of long-lived antibodies and development of memory cells. In this way, the body is trained to fight the specific disease-causing organism, building up memory of the pathogen so as to rapidly fight it if and when exposed to it.

Also Read: Vaccine Hesitancy: What It Means And How We Can Tackle It, Experts Explain

Herd Immunity From Vaccination

Vaccine Explainer: How Does Immunisation Protect Against A Disease?
WHO says when a lot of people in a community are vaccinated the pathogen has a hard time circulating because most of the people it encounters are immune

Explaining the concept of community vaccination that eventually helps protecting all the individuals, even those who can’t get vaccinated, AIIMS Director Dr Randeep Guleria said,

What happens is, when someone is vaccinated, they are very likely to be protected against the targeted disease. But not everyone can be vaccinated. Currently with coronavirus vaccine programme, people with underlying health conditions that weaken their immune systems (such as cancer or HIV) or who have severe allergies to some vaccine components, pregnant or lactating women or people under the age of 18-years of age are not advised to get vaccinated. However, these people can still be protected if they live in and amongst others who are vaccinated.

According to WHO, when a lot of people in a community are vaccinated the pathogen has a hard time circulating because most of the people it encounters are immune. So, it is very important that large number of people are vaccinated in the community. When in a community, a situation comes when most of the people are vaccinated and the chance of people, who are not protected by vaccine, getting infected,
becomes less is called herd immunity.

WHO further states that no single vaccine provides 100 per cent protection, and herd immunity does not provide full protection to those who cannot safely be vaccinated. But with herd immunity, these people will have substantial protection, thanks to those around them being vaccinated. Vaccinating not only protects an individual, but also protects those in the community who are unable to get vaccinated.

Also Read: Coronavirus Explainer: What Are Adverse Events Post COVID-19 Immunisation

NDTV – Dettol Banega Swasth India campaign is an extension of the five-year-old Banega Swachh India initiative helmed by Campaign Ambassador Amitabh Bachchan. It aims to spread awareness about critical health issues facing the country. In wake of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the need for WASH (WaterSanitation and Hygiene) is reaffirmed as handwashing is one of the ways to prevent Coronavirus infection and other diseases. The campaign highlights the importance of nutrition and healthcare for women and children to prevent maternal and child mortality, fight malnutrition, stunting, wasting, anaemia and disease prevention through vaccines. Importance of programmes like Public Distribution System (PDS), Mid-day Meal Scheme, POSHAN Abhiyan and the role of Aganwadis and ASHA workers are also covered. Only a Swachh or clean India where toilets are used and open defecation free (ODF) status achieved as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2014, can eradicate diseases like diahorrea and become a Swasth or healthy India. The campaign will continue to cover issues like air pollutionwaste managementplastic banmanual scavenging and sanitation workers and menstrual hygiene

World

14,20,88,128Cases
5,77,81,440Active
8,12,77,323Recovered
30,29,365Deaths
Coronavirus has spread to 192 countries. The total confirmed cases worldwide are 14,20,88,128 and 30,29,365 have died; 5,77,81,440 are active cases and 8,12,77,323 have recovered as on April 20, 2021 at 3:53 am.

India

1,53,21,089 259170Cases
20,31,977 102648Active
1,31,08,582 154761Recovered
1,80,530 1761Deaths
In India, there are 1,53,21,089 confirmed cases including 1,80,530 deaths. The number of active cases is 20,31,977 and 1,31,08,582 have recovered as on April 20, 2021 at 2:30 am.

State & District Details

State Cases Active Recovered Deaths
DistrictCases
Mumbai45,478
Thane13,660
Pune9,920
Mumbai Suburban5,363
Aurangabad1,974
Nashik1,575
Raigad1,462
Palghar1,421
Solapur1,291
Jalgaon1,039
Akola757
Nagpur692
Kolhapur646
Satara629
Ratnagiri350
Amravati291
Dhule228
Hingoli208
Jalna201
Ahmednagar190
Nanded176
Yavatmal150
Sangli145
Latur139
Osmanabad125
Sindhudurg114
Buldhana88
Parbhani78
gondia69
Beed54
Nandurbar42
Gadchiroli42
Bhandara41
Chandrapur32
Washim13
Wardha11

38,98,262 58,924

6,78,198 6,161

31,59,240 52,412

60,824 351

DistrictCases
Kannur357
Kasaragod333
Palakkad224
Malappuram119
Kollam118
Thrissur106
Thiruvananthapuram104
Pathanamthitta98
Kozhikode90
Alappuzha76
Kottayam73
Ernakulam60
Idukki40
Wayanad36

12,53,068 13,644

1,03,327 9,318

11,44,791 4,305

4,950 21

DistrictCases
Udupi1,176
Kalaburagi669
Yadgir538
Bengaluru Urban529
Raichur369
Mandya346
Belagavi337
Bidar219
Hassan205
Davangere204
Vijayapura201
Dakshina Kannada179
Chikkaballapura149
Mysuru107
Bagalkote103
Uttara Kannada95
Shivamogga67
Dharwad61
Ballari60
Gadag45
Bengaluru Rural40
Tumakuru36
Kolar29
Haveri24
Chikkamagaluru19
Chitradurga14
Koppal5
Kodagu4
Ramanagara3
Chamarajanagara0

11,76,850 15,785

1,42,103 8,541

10,21,250 7,098

13,497 146

DistrictCases
Chennai23,324
Chengalpattu1,314
Thiruvallur774
Villupuram509
Kanchipuram503
Tiruvannamalai496
Cuddalore477
Ariyalur444
Tirunelveli433
Tuticorin333
Kallakurichi324
Madurai322
Salem258
Coimbatore188
Virudhunagar185
Dindigul175
Perambalur133
Ranipet133
Thanjavur130
Theni129
Tiruchirappalli119
Ramanathapuram119
Tiruppur116
Kanniyakumari110
Tenkasi103
Nagapattinam99
Karur88
Namakkal83
Erode75
Vellore71
Thiruvarur67
Pudukkottai53
Sivaganga46
Tirupathur45
Krishnagiri43
The Nilgiris17
Dharmapuri15

10,02,392 10,941

75,116 4,725

9,14,119 6,172

13,157 44

DistrictCases
Kurnool795
Krishna557
Guntur511
Anantapur428
East Godavari356
Chittoor319
Sri Potti Sriramulu Nell*296
Y.S.R.205
West Godavari199
Srikakulam183
Prakasam104
Visakhapatnam103
Vizianagaram23

9,68,000 5,963

48,053 3,367

9,12,510 2,569

7,437 27

DistrictCases
Gautam Buddha Nagar1,119
Agra933
Ghaziabad794
Meerut504
Lucknow386
Saharanpur298
Kanpur Nagar286
Moradabad252
Varanasi243
Hapur225
Aligarh215
Basti214
Amethi206
Rampur203
Jaunpur194
Firozabad190
Barabanki168
Gorakhpur166
Bulandshahr166
Siddharth Nagar159
Ghazipur159
Bijnor157
Deoria143
Azamgarh138
Sant Kabeer Nagar132
Mathura129
Ayodhya120
Muzaffarnagar117
Sambhal116
Sultanpur97
Ambedkar Nagar92
Maharajganj85
Amroha80
Rae Bareli78
Bahraich73
Kheri72
Kannauj69
Baghpat68
Kushi Nagar67
Bhadohi60
Ballia60
Gonda59
Etah52
Hardoi49
Balrampur49
Mau48
Mainpuri46
Etawah46
Hathras43
Unnao42
Jalaun41
Jhansi41
Shamli40
Chandauli38
Auraiya37
Farrukhabad36
Sitapur32
Prayagraj30
Banda27
Shahjahanpur25
Shravasti23
Budaun23
Mirzapur22
Bareilly17
Kasganj16
Pratapgarh15
Pilibhit15
Sonbhadra10
Kaushambi6
Kanpur Dehat4
Chitrakoot4
Lalitpur3
Hamirpur3
Mahoba3
Fatehpur3

8,79,831 28,211

2,08,523 17,066

6,61,311 10,978

9,997 167

DistrictCases
North West5,463
Central4,817
West4,768
New Delhi3,405
North3,059
East2,472
South East2,446
South West2,391
South2,329
North East1,914
Shahdara1,580

8,77,146 23,686

76,887 1,946

7,87,898 21,500

12,361 240

DistrictCases
Kolkata2,777
Howrah1,435
24 Paraganas North1,031
Hooghly604
24 Paraganas South281
Maldah235
Dinajpur Uttar216
Coochbehar210
Birbhum206
Medinipur West159
Medinipur East153
Nadia139
Purba Bardhaman130
Murshidabad125
Bankura116
Darjeeling97
Jalpaiguri88
Paschim Bardhaman70
Purulia66
Dinajpur Dakshin50
Alipurduar39
Kalimpong18
Jhargram9

6,68,353 8,426

53,418 3,780

6,04,329 4,608

10,606 38

DistrictCases
Bilaspur100
Korba100
Mungeli87
Baloda Bazar85
Jashpur77
Janjgir-Champa56
Mahasamund54
Rajnandgaon52
Kabirdham52
Raigarh47
Raipur46
Balod41
Korea39
Durg31
Bemetara21
Kanker19
Balrampur17
Surguja14
Gariyaband10
Surajpur9
Dhamtari6
Bijapur2
Bastar2
Dantewada0
Kondagaon0
Narayanpur0
Sukma0

5,58,674 13,834

1,29,000 981

4,23,591 12,678

6,083 175

DistrictCases
Jaipur2,177
Jodhpur1,748
Udaipur724
Bharatpur563
Kota503
Nagaur500
Ajmer379
Dungarpur374
Pali352
Jhalawar329
Bhilwara250
Sikar231
Chittorgarh188
Tonk171
Jalore164
Rajsamand140
Sirohi130
Bikaner112
Banswara91
Alwar90
Churu81
Jhunjhunu64
Dausa61
Dholpur60
Baran59
Jaisalmer53
Barmer34
Hanumangarh31
SawaiMadhopur26
Karauli17
Pratapgarh14
Ganganagar8
Bundi5

4,26,584 11,967

76,641 9,506

3,46,739 2,408

3,204 53

DistrictCases
Indore3,839
Bhopal1,880
Ujjain799
Burhanpur351
Neemuch319
Jabalpur276
East Nimar266
Sagar228
Gwalior211
Khargone196
Dewas140
Dhar132
Mandsaur112
Morena109
Bhind87
Raisen71
Barwani60
Ratlam51
Rewa39
Shajapur39
Hoshangabad37
Vidisha37
Chhatarpur35
Betul35
Rajgarh31
Dindori29
Sheopur26
Damoh26
Satna24
Anuppur22
Panna20
Tikamgarh18
Sidhi17
Narsinghpur17
Chhindwara16
Agar Malwa15
Mandla15
Shivpuri15
Jhabua14
Shandol14
Singrauli13
Ashoknagar13
Datia12
Sehore12
Umaria10
Balaghat9
Guna8
Harda4
Alirajpur3
Katni3
Seoni2
Niwari0

4,20,977 12,897

74,558 5,982

3,41,783 6,836

4,636 79

DistrictCases
Ahmadabad17,125
Surat2,311
Vadodara1,555
Gandhinagar410
Mahesana159
Banas Kantha147
Bhavnagar146
Rajkot135
Arvalli134
Mahisagar125
Anand107
PanchMahals107
Patan105
SabarKantha101
Kachchh99
Kheda98
Jamnagar63
Bharuch56
Botad55
Surendranagar55
Valsad47
GirSomnath45
Dohad43
Chhotaudepur37
Naysari35
Junagadh31
Narmada25
DevbhumiDwarka22
Amreli16
Porbandar11
Tapi6
Dang5
Morbi4

4,15,972 11,403

68,754 7,107

3,41,724 4,179

5,494 117

DistrictCases
Ganjam581
Jajapur322
Khordha238
Baleshwar190
Kendrapara164
Cuttack155
Bhadrak137
Balangir129
Puri103
Sundargarh102
Jagatsinghapur91
Nayagarh86
Mayurbhanj73
Nuapada69
Gajapati61
Dhenkanal36
Boudh34
Kendujhar34
Deogarh33
Kalahandi33
Sonepur29
Kandhamal28
Anugul26
Malkangiri20
Bargarh16
Koraput16
Sambalpur16
Jharsuguda8
Nabarangpur2
Rayagada2

3,72,703 4,445

23,118 2,938

3,47,637 1,503

1,948 4

DistrictCases
Gurugram2,950
Faridabad867
Sonipat404
Rohtak145
Palwal120
Jhajjar114
Karnal104
Hisar98
Ambala93
Panipat78
Nuh68
Bhiwani60
Rewari56
Kurukshetra55
Sirsa50
Kaithal48
Mahendragarh47
CharkiDadri43
Panchkula39
Fatehabad38
Jind38
Yamunanagar19

3,63,813 6,842

45,363 3,146

3,15,002 3,663

3,448 33

DistrictCases
Hyderabad2,475
Ranga Reddy183
Suryapet87
Jagitial77
Nizamabad76
MedchalMalkajgiri75
Mancherial43
YadadriBhuvanagiri40
Jogulamba Gadwal40
Vikarabad40
Nalgonda33
Warangal Urban32
Mahabubnagar30
Sangareddy26
Khammam26
Adilabad22
Nirmal21
Karimnagar17
RajannaSircilla16
Medak11
Kamareddy11
Mahabubabad10
Jayashankar Bhupalapally9
Nagarkurnool8
Kumuram Bheem Asifabad8
Jangoan8
Siddipet7
Peddapalli5
Bhadradri Kothagudem5
Warangal Rural4
Mulugu3
Narayanpet3
Wanaparthy1

3,61,359 5,926

42,853 3,699

3,16,650 2,209

1,856 18

DistrictCases
Patna279
Bhagalpur266
Rohtas256
Khagaria253
Begusarai243
Madhubani199
Munger188
Jehanabad178
Katihar175
Darbhanga143
Samastipur139
Siwan139
PurbiChamparan138
Purnia135
Banka134
Buxar134
Nalanda123
Gopalganj123
Nawada122
Sheikhpura118
Gaya115
Kaimur (bhabua)105
Bhojpur103
Saran101
Muzaffarpur96
Saharsa88
Supaul87
Vaishali87
Madhepura82
Kishanganj75
Aurangabad75
Sitamarhi73
Lakhisarai72
Araria68
Pashchim Champaran57
Arwal52
Jamui47
Sheohar20

3,31,604 7,487

49,528 4,827

2,80,286 2,619

1,790 41

DistrictCases
Amritsar485
Jalandhar297
Ludhiana293
Tarn Taran163
Gurdaspur154
Hoshiarpur140
S.A.S Nagar137
Patiala132
Sangrur107
Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar (Nawanshahr)99
Pathankot86
Rupnagar (Ropar)74
Faridkot74
Sri Muktsar Sahib71
Moga65
Bathinda60
Fatehgarh Sahib57
Fazilka53
Firozepur50
Kapurthala44
Mansa31
Barnala25

3,04,660 4,622

35,311 1,121

2,61,364 3,418

7,985 83

DistrictCases
Kamrup Metro276
Golaghat203
Nagaon143
Hojai89
Dima Hasao86
Karimganj85
Tinsukia84
Cachar80
Dibrugarh61
Hailakandi57
Lakhimpur57
Marigaon50
Dhemaji47
Kamrup42
Kokrajhar37
Dhubri30
Charaideo29
Barpeta28
Udalguri28
Sonitpur27
Jorhat24
Nalbari23
Darrang20
Sivasagar20
Goalpara19
Biswanath16
Baksa14
KarbiAnglong13
Bongaigaon12
Chirang6
West KarbiAnglong5
South SalmaraMancachar4
Majuli2

2,25,822 1,367

7,663 1,048

2,17,017 312

1,142 7

DistrictCases
East Singhbum170
Ranchi148
Hazaribagh110
Garhwa80
Ramgarh75
Koderma58
Simdega48
Dhanbad32
Gumla28
Palamu27
West Singhbhum21
SaraikelaKharsawan20
Giridih19
Bokaro16
Latehar14
Khunti10
Lohardaga8
Deoghar5
Dumka5
Pakur4
Jamtara2
Godda2
Chatra1
Sahebganj0

1,67,235 4,290

30,477 2,467

1,35,256 1,777

1,502 46

DistrictCases
Anantnag395
Srinagar300
Kulgam295
Baramulla271
Shopian255
Kupwara231
Bandipora175
Udhampur155
Ramban151
Jammu138
Budgam110
Pulwama108
Kathua53
Rajouri39
Ganderbal37
Poonch35
Doda27
Reasi26
Samba25
Kishtwar10
Mirpur0
Muzaffarabad0

1,48,208 1,516

12,164 697

1,33,981 813

2,063 6

DistrictCases
Dehradun370
Nainital323
Tehri Garhwal110
Haridwar94
Udam Singh Nagar83
Almora71
Champawat45
Pithoragarh43
Chamoli36
PauriGarhwal36
Bageshwar31
Rudraprayag30
Uttar Kashi24

1,26,193 2,160

18,864 1,571

1,05,437 565

1,892 24

DistrictCases
Hamirpur117
Kangra105
Una41
Solan32
Chamba29
Bilaspur21
Mandi21
Sirmaur11
Shimla10
Kullu4
Kinnaur2
Lahaul And Spiti0

78,070 1,695

9,783 1,087

67,084 595

1,203 13

DistrictCases
South Goa69
North Goa57

68,152 940

7,547 495

59,705 428

900 17

DistrictCases
Pondicherry111
Mahe4
Karaikal2
Yanam0

48,336 565

4,692 224

42,931 336

713 5

DistrictCases
Chandigarh313

34,546 612

3,804 179

30,325 429

417 4

DistrictCases
Dhalai196
Sepahijala174
Gomati74
South Tripura53
Unakoti49
West Tripura45
Khowai24
North Tripura14

34,094 60

506 44

33,194 16

394

DistrictCases
Churachandpur32
Kangpokpi26
Imphal West21
Thoubal18
Imphal East10
Tengnoupal9
Bishnupur7
Senapati6
Chandel5
Kamjong5
Ukhrul4
Jiribam3
Pherzawl3
Kakching2
Tamenglong2
Noney1

29,775 54

296 41

29,102 12

377 1

DistrictCases
Changlang31
Papum Pare8
Lohit3
Namsai2
West Siang1
East Siang1
Upper Siang1
Tawang1
PakkeKessang1
West Kameng0
Upper Subansiri0
Tirap0
Siang0
Shi Yomi0
Anjaw0
Lower Subansiri0
Lower Dibang Valley0
Longding0
Leparada0
KurungKumey0
KraDaadi0
Kamle0
East Kameng0
Dibang Valley0
Lower Siang0

17,052 65

176 54

16,820 11

56

DistrictCases
East Khasi Hills22
West Garo Hills5
South West Garo Hills4
North Garo Hills1
West Jaintia Hills1
West Khasi Hills1
East Garo Hills0
East Jaintia Hills0
Ribhoi0
South Garo Hills0
South West Khasi Hills0

14,979 108

754 74

14,071 33

154 1

DistrictCases
Dimapur20
Mon8
Kohima7
Kiphire3
Tuensang3
Peren2
Phek1
Longleng0
Mokokchung0
Wokha0
Zunheboto0

12,568 13

189 13

12,285

94

DistrictCases
Kargil77
LehLadakh43

12,306 175

1,699 52

10,474 123

133

DistrictCases
East District3
South District3
North District0
West District0

6,705 9

404 5

6,165 4

136

DistrictCases
South Andamans33
Nicobars1
North And Middle Andaman1

5,421 31

145 19

5,212 12

64

DistrictCases
Dadra And Nagar Haveli20

5,102 299

1,136 213

3,962 86

4

DistrictCases
Kolasib11
Aizawl10
Mamit8
Lawngtlai2
Lunglei2
Saitual1
Champhai0
Hnahthial0
Khawzawl0
Saiha0
Serchhip0

4,995 91

437 54

4,546 37

12

DistrictCases
Lakshadweep District0

1,282 117

490 100

791 17

1

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