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Study Decodes How COVID-19 Differs From Other Infectious Lung Diseases At Cell-Level

According to the researchers, COVID-19 is a complex disease, and it is still not known exactly what it does to a lot of organs, but with this study they were able to develop a much clearer understanding of its effects on the lungs

Study Decodes How COVID-19 Differs From Other Infectious Lung Diseases At Cell-Level
Highlights
  • Scientists analysed over 6,50,000 cells from severe cases
  • Inflammation often keeps worsening in severe COVID-19: Experts
  • COVID-19 affects various organs in the body: Experts

New York: Using advanced analysis tools, scientists have revealed at single-cell resolution, how the novel coronavirus infection affects lung tissue in severe cases, compared to other diseases which affect the organ, an advance that may lead to the development of new therapeutics against COVID-19. In the study, published in the journal Nature, scientists analysed over 6,50,000 cells from patients who had died of severe COVID-19, acute bacterial pneumonia, or bacterial or influenza-related acute respiratory distress syndrome, and from those who had had no lung disease.

Also Read: COVID-19: World Leaders Call For International Treaty On Pandemics

The findings confirmed that cells called alveolar epithelial cells, which mediate gas-exchange function in the lungs, are the main targets of infection by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 that causes COVID-19.

COVID-19 is a complex disease, and we still don’t understand exactly what it does to a lot of organs, but with this study we were able to develop a much clearer understanding of its effects on the lungs, said study co-author Olivier Elemento from Weill Cornell Medicine in the US.

Based on the analysis, the scientists said infected cells are not solely singled out for attack by lung-infiltrating immune cells, which could explain why inflammation often keeps worsening in severe COVID-19 and ends up causing such extensive and relatively indiscriminate damage.

According to the researchers, white blood cells called macrophages are much more abundant in the lungs of severe COVID-19 patients compared to other lung diseases, whereas white blood cells called neutrophils are most prevalent in bacterial pneumonia.

Also Read: COVID-19: Seven Vaccines Candidates In Clinical Trials, Says Union Health Minister Harsh Vardhan

The application of technology like what we’ve demonstrated here is going to provide a huge boost to the utility of autopsy-based studies of disease, said study co-senior author Alain Borczuk, professor of pathology and laboratory medicine at Weill Cornell Medicine.

The scientists believe the distinction between different infection pathologies revealed by the study may help in the development of future treatments for these diseases.

Traditionally for lung, liver, and other organ diseases we have these broad diagnoses that in fact cover multiple distinct diseases — now we have a tool that that will enable us routinely to distinguish among these different diseases, and hopefully make use of those distinctions in treating patients more effectively, said Robert Schwartz, another co-author of the study from Weill Cornell Medicine.

Also Read: Pfizer, Moderna Vaccines Against COVID-19 Highly Effective Even After First Shot: US Study

(Except for the headline, this story has not been edited by NDTV staff and is published from a syndicated feed.)

NDTV – Dettol Banega Swasth India campaign is an extension of the five-year-old Banega Swachh India initiative helmed by Campaign Ambassador Amitabh Bachchan. It aims to spread awareness about critical health issues facing the country. In wake of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the need for WASH (WaterSanitation and Hygiene) is reaffirmed as handwashing is one of the ways to prevent Coronavirus infection and other diseases. The campaign highlights the importance of nutrition and healthcare for women and children to prevent maternal and child mortality, fight malnutrition, stunting, wasting, anaemia and disease prevention through vaccines. Importance of programmes like Public Distribution System (PDS), Mid-day Meal Scheme, POSHAN Abhiyan and the role of Aganwadis and ASHA workers are also covered. Only a Swachh or clean India where toilets are used and open defecation free (ODF) status achieved as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2014, can eradicate diseases like diahorrea and become a Swasth or healthy India. The campaign will continue to cover issues like air pollutionwaste managementplastic banmanual scavenging and sanitation workers and menstrual hygiene

World

26,71,08,375Cases
22,77,48,418Active
3,40,89,137Recovered
52,70,820Deaths
Coronavirus has spread to 196 countries. The total confirmed cases worldwide are 26,71,08,375 and 52,70,820 have died; 22,77,48,418 are active cases and 3,40,89,137 have recovered as on December 8, 2021 at 3:48 am.

India

3,46,48,383 6,822Cases
95,0143,402Active
3,40,79,612 10,004Recovered
4,73,757 220Deaths
In India, there are 3,46,48,383 confirmed cases including 4,73,757 deaths. The number of active cases is 95,014 and 3,40,79,612 have recovered as on December 7, 2021 at 2:30 am.

State Details

State Cases Active Recovered Deaths
Maharashtra

66,39,296 518

10,528 298

64,87,593 811

1,41,175 5

Kerala

51,69,198 3,277

41,386 2,724

50,86,044 5,833

41,768 168

Karnataka

29,98,400 301

7,096 65

29,53,067 359

38,237 7

Tamil Nadu

27,31,235 719

8,013 28

26,86,683 737

36,539 10

Andhra Pradesh

20,73,852 122

2,030 92

20,57,369 213

14,453 1

Uttar Pradesh

17,10,485 10

137 3

16,87,437 7

22,911

West Bengal

16,19,722 465

7,590 49

15,92,579 505

19,553 9

Delhi

14,41,398 40

344 26

14,15,955 65

25,099 1

Odisha

10,50,354 105

2,010 144

10,39,921 248

8,423 1

Chhattisgarh

10,07,011 44

337 7

9,93,081 37

13,593

Rajasthan

9,54,920 29

221 0

9,45,743 28

8,956 1

Gujarat

8,27,745 38

350 1

8,17,300 37

10,095

Madhya Pradesh

7,93,258 17

137 4

7,82,593 13

10,528

Haryana

7,71,851 32

203 18

7,61,594 14

10,054

Bihar

7,26,244 7

28 2

7,14,126 5

12,090

Telangana

6,77,138 195

3,810 23

6,69,328 171

4,000 1

Assam

6,17,758 182

2,544 54

6,09,088 122

6,126 6

Punjab

6,03,509 21

333 28

5,86,565 46

16,611 3

Jharkhand

3,49,352 10

131 4

3,44,080 6

5,141

Uttarakhand

3,44,364 11

172 2

3,36,781 13

7,411

Jammu And Kashmir

3,37,915 108

1,661 45

3,31,771 151

4,483 2

Himachal Pradesh

2,27,630 112

776 21

2,23,001 90

3,853 1

Goa

1,79,209 35

413 1

1,75,409 34

3,387

Mizoram

1,36,784 330

3,120 19

1,33,156 310

508 1

Puducherry

1,29,093 8

250 30

1,26,968 38

1,875

Manipur

1,25,389 29

341 12

1,23,063 38

1,985 3

Tripura

84,866 8

93 3

83,948 5

825

Meghalaya

84,599 16

246 2

82,878 14

1,475

Chandigarh

65,500 12

62 4

64,618 8

820

Arunachal Pradesh

55,294 1

35 1

54,979 2

280

Sikkim

32,374 5

214 1

31,755 6

405

Nagaland

32,140 4

120 3

31,321 1

699

Ladakh

21,723 9

270 25

21,238 34

215

Dadra And Nagar Haveli

10,683

0 0

10,679

4

Lakshadweep

10,404

10 0

10,343

51

Andaman And Nicobar Islands

7,690 2

3 1

7,558 3

129

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