Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: Different Types Of Tests For COVID-19 And Their Efficacy

Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: Different Types Of Tests For COVID-19 And Their Efficacy

There are two types of tests for COVID-19 – tests for antibodies and tests directly for the virus. Currently, in India, RT-PCR test is being followed for the diagnosis of COVID-19
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Highlights
  • Types of test for COVID-19 – tests for antibodies, tests for the virus
  • Antibody test shows accurate results only after a week of being infected
  • In India, RT-PCR test is being followed for the diagnosis of COVID-19

New Delhi: Test, isolate and trace is what the World Health Organisation’s advice on strategy to deal with the coronavirus pandemic. As India scales up its testing even as it tries to slow down the rate of transmission with the extension of the lockdown till May 3, India has updated its testing guidelines. On April 9, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), the nodal body for the fight against COVID-19, updated the coronavirus testing strategy for India for the fourth time and noted that individuals present in the hotspots and showing symptoms like fever, cough, sore throat, and runny nose, will be tested. Initially, ICMR resorted to testing individuals returning from foreign countries and showing symptoms.

Also, earlier RT-PCR (Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) test was done. Later, ICMR introduced antibody test for COVID-19 and on April 13, ICMR issued an advisory on the feasibility of using pooled samples for molecular testing of COVID-19.

Given the different kinds of tests for COVID-19, NDTV spoke to experts to learn more about these tests and their effectiveness.

Also Read: What Is The Difference Between Pandemic And Epidemic?

Why Are Tests Crucial For Combating COVID-19?

Before we move to understanding these tests for COVID-19, let’s quickly understand why testing is required. Time and again, experts have mentioned that testing is the only way to know the accurate status of the pandemic. Testing is essential to see who, why, where, and how many are infected by the coronavirus.

In a media briefing, Dr Tedros Adhanom, Director general of the World Health Organisation has also emphasised on testing and said,

We have a simple message for all countries: test, test, test. Test every suspected case. The most effective way to prevent infections and save lives is breaking the chains of transmission. And to do that, you must test and isolate.

In the case of lack of testing, if two people get infected and they have not been diagnosed and quarantined then they can spread the virus to potentially 800 people. Whereas, in case of adequate testing, if two people get infected, and identified then they can be in quarantine; and so the spread of infection curtailed as these two can potentially infect a maximum five people, as compared to 800 in the earlier scenario.

Also Read: Look After Your Mental Health During Coronavirus, Experts Predict Rise In Cases Of Anxiety And Panic

Types Of Covid-19 Tests

There are two types of tests for COVID-19 – tests for antibodies and tests directly for the virus – RT-PCR test and NAT test.

Antibody Test For COVID-19

Antibody tests are similar to a blood test, using a few drops of blood to determine whether the human body has antibodies for coronavirus. Antibodies are proteins produced by a human body and used by the immune system to identify and neutralise foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses. Though antibody test costs Rs. 500 and gives result in 20-30 minutes, but testing for anti-body can be misleading in the first week of infection.

Coronavirus In India: Experts Explain Different Types Of Tests For COVID-19 And Their Efficacy
Pros and cons of anti-body test to diagnose coronavirus

From the day of contracting the virus to day 7, an individual will start showing the symptoms of COVID-19 and may start infecting others as well but even after repetitive tests, there is a possibility antibody test will give a false negative. The reason being, antibodies take eight days to develop and actually appear. This means, antibody test will give accurate results from the eighth day of being infected.

Also Read: Coronavirus Will Be With Us For A Long Time: World Health Organisation

Talking about the relevance of antibody test and at which stage it should be done, Gagandeep Kang, Executive Director at Translational Health Science and Technology Institute (THSTI) said,

The antibody test looks really easy to do but there is a problem with a test, not just in that they become positive only in the second week of illness but the validation of these tests are also much harder than validating molecular tests like PCR and NAT. Since antibody tests have not been around for a very long time, there is a lot of testing that needs to be done before we create an appropriate use case for them anytime early in illness. In late illness or looking to see who can safely go back to work, definitely these antiboDY tests have value but in early illness, they will provide you with false results.

NAT And RT-PCR Tests For COVID-19

For testing the virus, there are two kinds of tests available – NAT (Nucleic Acid Test) and RT-PCR (Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) test. Both tests require a nasal and throat swab. While NAT costs Rs. 2,800 without duty and takes about an hour, RT-PCR costs Rs. 4,500 and requires five to six hours to test the samples thoroughly.

Coronavirus In India: Experts Explain Different Types Of Tests For COVID-19 And Their Efficacy
Advantages and disadvantages of NAT test to diagnose COVID-19

Both NAT and RT-PCR test lookout for virus hence they give positive results from day one. Though NAT test has been approved by FDA (Food and Drug Administration), currently, in India, RT-PCR is being followed for the diagnosis of COVID-19.

Also Read: Why Is A Lockdown Important?

Elaborating on NAT and RT-PCR test, Dr Navin Dang, founder of Dang’s Lab said,

The need of the hour is the PCR test because even a single patient who skips the test at an early stage is capable of infecting a large number of patients. But, if we immediately test, quarantine, the number of contacts which he/she would have infected will be much lower. At the moment, when the disease is in an early stage, when the infection is in an early stage, the need is only PCR test.

Coronavirus In India: Experts Explain Different Types Of Tests For COVID-19 And Their Efficacy
Currently, in India, RT-PCR test is being done to diagnose COVID-19

Echoing the same, Ms Kang said,

If you look at what needs to be done in early infection, very clearly we need to go for PCR or NAT test if we can get it. The problem right now with NAT test is, it’s not available. And we should be putting in efforts to making sure that we can get the test.

Also Read: What Is Herd Immunity And Can It Control The Coronavirus Pandemic?

Complexity Of COVID-19 Tests

Of the three tests, RT-PCR is not only expensive but requires highly qualified technicians and the entire process – from collecting the sample to delivery of report – takes a day. Talking about the complexity of three tests, Ms Kang said,

Doing PCR does require a fair degree of complexity and training because you have to be very careful not to cause contamination of the area that you are working in. NAT tests are easier to do and antibody test is the easiest of all. In fact, in many parts of the world, people are thinking of doing it as an at-home test which can be shipped to houses so you can test yourself at home, similar to doing a diabetes test.

Also Read: Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: Experts Guide On “How To Wash Hands Properly” And Why It Is So Crucial

Should India Stock Up Antibody Tests?

Considering the fact that antibody tests give accurate results only after a week of getting infected, in its latest testing strategy dated April 9, ICMR has made it clear that individuals living in hotspots and showing influenza-like illness (ILI) symptoms will undergo RT-PCR test. Only after seven days of illness, anti-body test will be done.

Since India is following RT-PCR, should a country stock up antibody tests? Answering the same, Ms Kang said,

Absolutely, zero epidemiology is one of the key tools of public health. Understanding what proportion of the population has been infected allows you to direct public health efforts accordingly. If you look at what is happening now, there is more and more evidence that people can spread infection when they are asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic. So, we will never know who has had contacts with whom and the only way to detect this at a population level is to look for the presence of a signature in the blood which is antibodies demonstrating that you have been previously exposed to the virus.

Also Read: Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Is Personal Protective Equipment? 

What Is Pooled Testing?

A pooled testing algorithm involves the RT-PCR screening of a pool comprising multiple individual patient samples. If a pool turns out to be negative, all individual samples involved in that particular pool are regarded as negatives. On the other hand, if a pool tests positive, pool de-convolution – individual testing of samples is done.

Why Is Pool Testing Done?

The pooled strategy testing is being adopted in other countries like Germany. On April 13, to increase the number of tests in India, ICMR also issued an advisory on the feasibility of using pooled samples for molecular testing of COVID-19. In its advisory, ICMR has suggested the pooling of only five samples.

Talking about the effectiveness of pooled testing, Ms Kang said,

Pooling is very useful when you have a low prevalence of infection in a population. Once you get up to a considerable part of the population potentially infected then pooling loses its value because you will have to go back to the individual samples if your pool turns out positive. To start with, yes, absolutely, pooling is a cost-efficient way of testing a lot of samples. Later in the course of epidemic, that might not be the case.

In its advisory, ICMR has recommended the use of pooled testing only in areas with a low prevalence of COVID-19 (areas detecting up to 2 per cent positive samples). In areas with the positivity of 2-5 per cent, pooling of samples may be considered only in community survey or surveillance among asymptomatic individuals. The pooling of samples is not recommended in areas or AMONG A population with positivity rates of over 5 per cent.

Also Read: Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Is Pool Testing And Can It Expedite COVID-19 Detection In The Country?

Conclusion

According to the ICMR’s SARS-CoV-2 testing update, over 8 lakh (8,30,201) samples have been tested as on April 30, 2020, 9 AM. To ramp up the testing, India is procuring test kits from different countries like China, South Korea. On April 16, China dispatched 6.5 lakh coronavirus medical kits to India to help in quickly IN identifying and isolating COVID-19 patients. The shipment, part of a total order of around 20 lakh kits to be delivered over 15 days, includes Rapid Antibody Test kits – a blood-based test that is more accurate and allows for quicker detection of the novel coronavirus.

On April 18, nearly 3 lakh rapid antibody test kits were airlifted to transport them to Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu.

Also Read: Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Is The Post-Pandemic Stage? 

World

58,29,522Cases
30,38,673Active
24,30,080Recovered
3,60,769Deaths
Coronavirus has spread to 188 countries. The total confirmed cases worldwide are 58,29,522 and 3,60,769 have died; 30,38,673 are active cases and 24,30,080 have recovered as on May 29, 2020 at 11:06 am.

India

1,65,799 7466Cases
89,987 3877Active
71,106 3414Recovered
4,706 175Deaths
In India, there are 1,65,799 confirmed cases including 4,706 deaths. The number of active cases is 89,987 and 71,106 have recovered as on May 29, 2020 at 2:30 am.

State & District Details

State Cases Active Recovered Deaths
DistrictCases
Akola514
Aurangabad1465
Dhule125
Jalgaon562
Mumbai36382
Mumbai Suburban3436
Nagpur463
Nashik1116
Palghar841
Pune7573
Satara463
Solapur803
Thane9643
Yavatmal119
Ahmednagar91
Amravati205
Beed45
Bhandara25
Buldhana57
Chandrapur26
Hingoli138
Jalna131
Kolhapur424
Latur110
Nanded118
Nandurbar33
Parbhani54
Raigad1065
Ratnagiri212
Sangli101
Gadchiroli31
gondia60
Osmanabad67
Sindhudurg31
Wardha8
Washim11

59546 2598

38948 1815

18616 698

1982 85

DistrictCases
Chittoor257
Guntur412
Krishna478
Kurnool699
Sri Potti Sriramulu Nell*168
Anantapur344
East Godavari208
Prakasam64
Srikakulam85
Visakhapatnam78
West Godavari127
Y.S.R.160
Vizianagaram17

3251 80

1067 11

2125 68

59 1

DistrictCases
Bengaluru Rural15
Bengaluru Urban305
Mysuru101
Bagalkote83
Ballari47
Belagavi182
Bidar125
Chikkaballapura136
Dakshina Kannada107
Dharwad45
Gadag37
Kalaburagi266
Mandya265
Tumakuru36
Uttara Kannada79
Vijayapura98
Chamarajanagara0
Chikkamagaluru12
Chitradurga11
Davangere150
Hassan135
Haveri12
Kodagu4
Kolar21
Koppal4
Raichur135
Ramanagara1
Shivamogga36
Udupi128
Yadgir225

2533 115

1652 62

834 53

47

DistrictCases
North Goa39
South Goa25

69 1

31

38 1

0

DistrictCases
Chengalpattu699
Chennai13166
Kanchipuram330
Madurai274
Namakkal94
Ranipet99
Thanjavur126
Thiruvallur578
Thiruvarur50
Tiruppur115
Vellore48
Virudhunagar144
Ariyalur412
Coimbatore167
Cuddalore443
Dharmapuri8
Dindigul135
Erode70
Kallakurichi283
Kanniyakumari71
Karur81
Nagapattinam63
Perambalur124
Pudukkottai32
Ramanathapuram85
Salem184
Sivaganga39
Tenkasi85
The Nilgiris16
Theni115
Tiruchirappalli87
Tirunelveli377
Tirupathur31
Tiruvannamalai343
Tuticorin195
Villupuram432
Krishnagiri28

19372 827

8679 176

10548 639

145 12

DistrictCases
Kannur275
Kottayam51
Alappuzha40
Idukki28
Kasaragod276
Kollam62
Kozhikode62
Malappuram69
Palakkad132
Pathanamthitta48
Thiruvananthapuram57
Thrissur48
Ernakulam47
Wayanad30

1088 84

526 81

555 3

7

DistrictCases
Raipur11
Korba41
Balod24
Baloda Bazar14
Balrampur9
Bastar0
Bemetara13
Bijapur1
Bilaspur49
Dantewada0
Dhamtari2
Durg12
Gariyaband5
Janjgir-Champa15
Jashpur16
Kabirdham13
Kanker12
Kondagaon0
Korea9
Mahasamund1
Mungeli81
Narayanpur0
Raigarh14
Rajnandgaon35
Sukma0
Surajpur8
Surguja7

399 30

316 30

83

0

DistrictCases
Hyderabad1601
MedchalMalkajgiri46
Ranga Reddy100
Suryapet84
Vikarabad38
Warangal Urban29
Adilabad22
Jagitial59
Jangoan7
Jayashankar Bhupalapally9
Jogulamba Gadwal41
Kamareddy10
Karimnagar11
Khammam11
Kumuram Bheem Asifabad6
Mahabubnagar18
Mancherial33
Medak7
Nalgonda23
Narayanpet2
Nirmal21
Nizamabad74
RajannaSircilla12
Sangareddy17
Bhadradri Kothagudem4
Mahabubabad10
Mulugu3
Nagarkurnool4
Peddapalli3
Siddipet4
Wanaparthy0
Warangal Rural3
YadadriBhuvanagiri36

2256 158

844 93

1345 61

67 4

DistrictCases
Baleshwar143
Bhadrak111
Jajapur245
Dhenkanal17
Kalahandi25
Kendrapara71
Khordha128
Koraput8
Sundargarh43
Anugul21
Balangir68
Bargarh2
Boudh33
Cuttack87
Deogarh32
Gajapati34
Ganjam397
Jagatsinghapur55
Jharsuguda6
Kandhamal15
Kendujhar20
Malkangiri18
Mayurbhanj19
Nabarangpur2
Nayagarh66
Nuapada26
Puri87
Rayagada0
Sambalpur8
Sonepur5

1660 67

766

887 154

7

DistrictCases
Barwani42
Bhopal1483
Dewas96
Dhar122
East Nimar240
Gwalior132
Indore3426
Jabalpur238
Ujjain743
Agar Malwa13
Alirajpur3
Betul23
Burhanpur297
Chhindwara9
Dindori19
Harda4
Hoshangabad37
Khargone124
Mandsaur110
Morena89
Raisen68
Ratlam31
Sagar163
Shajapur10
Shandol9
Sheopur7
Tikamgarh9
Vidisha21
Anuppur5
Ashoknagar12
Balaghat8
Bhind53
Chhatarpur18
Damoh16
Datia9
Guna3
Jhabua14
Katni2
Mandla13
Narsinghpur10
Neemuch160
Niwari0
Panna4
Rajgarh10
Rewa39
Satna24
Sehore9
Seoni2
Shivpuri8
Sidhi13
Singrauli11
Umaria6

7453 192

3082 61

4050 123

321 8

DistrictCases
Ahmadabad12840
Anand100
Arvalli115
Banas Kantha112
Bhavnagar125
Gandhinagar252
PanchMahals84
Surat1626
Vadodara1018
Bharuch42
Botad55
Chhotaudepur25
Dang3
Dohad39
GirSomnath46
Jamnagar53
Kachchh68
Kheda75
Mahesana102
Mahisagar122
Narmada18
Naysari24
Patan83
Rajkot110
SabarKantha93
Surendranagar35
Tapi6
Valsad33
Amreli10
DevbhumiDwarka11
Junagadh28
Morbi4
Porbandar8

15562 367

6599

8003 454

960 22

DistrictCases
Ajmer344
Banswara103
Bharatpur131
Jaipur1954
Jhalawar247
Jodhpur1332
Kota429
Nagaur440
Alwar55
Barmer22
Bhilwara196
Bikaner108
Chittorgarh220
Churu24
Dausa50
Dholpur33
Dungarpur287
Hanumangarh24
Jaisalmer48
Jhunjhunu64
Karauli12
Pali185
Rajsamand110
SawaiMadhopur23
Sikar69
Tonk169
Udaipur644
Baran8
Bundi1
Ganganagar7
Jalore97
Pratapgarh13
Sirohi77

8067 364

3070

4817 360

180 7

DistrictCases
Faridabad372
Sonipat197
Ambala51
Bhiwani14
CharkiDadri15
Fatehabad15
Gurugram1200
Hisar29
Jhajjar122
Jind30
Kaithal12
Karnal42
Kurukshetra26
Nuh68
Palwal42
Panchkula45
Panipat61
Rohtak35
Sirsa9
Yamunanagar8
Mahendragarh38
Rewari24

1504 123

604 79

881 43

19 1

DistrictCases
Agra904
Aligarh145
Amroha66
Bareilly15
Bijnor93
Bulandshahr112
Firozabad172
Gautam Buddha Nagar597
Kanpur Nagar258
Lucknow303
Mathura96
Meerut421
Moradabad212
Muzaffarnagar77
Rae Bareli76
Rampur179
Saharanpur264
Sant Kabeer Nagar83
Varanasi177
Auraiya24
Ayodhya97
Azamgarh71
Baghpat26
Bahraich65
Balrampur36
Banda25
Basti148
Bhadohi32
Budaun21
Etah31
Etawah38
Ghaziabad499
Ghazipur111
Gonda42
Gorakhpur80
Hapur150
Hardoi37
Jalaun40
Jaunpur162
Jhansi39
Kannauj46
Kasganj6
Kaushambi4
Mainpuri24
Mau20
Mirzapur21
Pilibhit14
Pratapgarh10
Prayagraj14
Sambhal84
Shamli29
Shravasti24
Sitapur29
Sultanpur77
Unnao22
Ambedkar Nagar62
Amethi94
Ballia39
Barabanki147
Chandauli30
Chitrakoot4
Deoria71
Farrukhabad29
Fatehpur1
Hamirpur3
Hathras24
Kanpur Dehat4
Kheri60
Kushi Nagar20
Lalitpur2
Maharajganj48
Mahoba1
Shahjahanpur18
Siddharth Nagar102
Sonbhadra5

7170 179

2758

4215 224

197 15

DistrictCases
Central3136
East1149
New Delhi2460
North2137
North East1055
North West3071
Shahdara1002
South1174
South East1344
South West1387
West2518

16281 1024

8470 780

7495 231

316 13

DistrictCases
Dhubri15
Goalpara14
Marigaon26
Baksa3
Barpeta10
Biswanath3
Bongaigaon8
Cachar44
Charaideo13
Chirang5
Darrang6
Dhemaji8
Dibrugarh5
Dima Hasao8
Golaghat121
Hailakandi16
Hojai67
Jorhat11
Kamrup21
Kamrup Metro213
KarbiAnglong11
Karimganj36
Kokrajhar3
Lakhimpur29
Majuli1
Nagaon54
Nalbari21
Sivasagar8
Sonitpur19
South SalmaraMancachar4
Tinsukia14
Udalguri4
West KarbiAnglong0

856 75

748 58

104 17

4

DistrictCases
East District0
North District0
South District1
West District0

1

1

0

0

DistrictCases
Buxar133
Gaya74
Munger152
Patna224
Rohtas254
Arwal38
Aurangabad58
Banka84
Begusarai125
Bhagalpur140
Bhojpur74
Darbhanga103
Gopalganj94
Jehanabad145
Kaimur (bhabua)61
Lakhisarai43
Madhepura61
Madhubani167
Nalanda94
Nawada70
PurbiChamparan100
Purnia40
Saran53
Siwan66
Vaishali78
Araria42
Jamui34
Katihar111
Khagaria123
Kishanganj35
Muzaffarpur52
Pashchim Champaran48
Saharsa65
Samastipur79
Sheikhpura76
Sheohar7
Sitamarhi48
Supaul45

3296 235

2070 107

1211 128

15

DistrictCases
24 Paraganas North583
24 Paraganas South157
Darjeeling22
Howrah1015
Jalpaiguri14
Kalimpong7
Kolkata1979
Maldah150
Medinipur East89
Medinipur West32
Hooghly265
Murshidabad81
Nadia76
Paschim Bardhaman48
Purba Bardhaman78
Alipurduar6
Bankura29
Birbhum111
Coochbehar39
Dinajpur Dakshin7
Dinajpur Uttar153
Jhargram9
Purulia11

4536 344

2573 248

1668 90

295 6

DistrictCases
South Andamans33
Nicobars1
North And Middle Andaman1

33

0

33

0

DistrictCases
Pondicherry52
Karaikal2
Mahe4
Yanam0

51 5

37 3

14 2

0

DistrictCases
Anjaw0
Changlang0
Dibang Valley0
East Kameng0
East Siang0
Kamle0
KraDaadi0
KurungKumey0
Leparada0
Lohit1
Longding0
Lower Dibang Valley0
Lower Siang0
Lower Subansiri0
Namsai0
PakkeKessang1
Papum Pare2
Shi Yomi0
Siang0
Tawang0
Tirap0
Upper Siang0
Upper Subansiri0
West Kameng0
West Siang0

3 1

2 1

1

0

DistrictCases
Dimapur3
Kiphire0
Kohima0
Longleng0
Mokokchung0
Mon0
Peren0
Phek0
Tuensang2
Wokha0
Zunheboto0

18 14

18 14

0

0

DistrictCases
Dadra And Nagar Haveli3

2

2

0

0

DistrictCases
Ranchi139
Bokaro17
Deoghar5
Dhanbad16
Garhwa58
Giridih17
Hazaribagh55
Jamtara3
Koderma32
Simdega10
Chatra2
Dumka3
East Singhbum38
Godda2
Gumla18
Khunti3
Latehar10
Lohardaga4
Pakur4
Palamu19
Ramgarh15
Sahebganj0
SaraikelaKharsawan4
West Singhbhum15

469 21

253

212 27

4

DistrictCases
Gomati30
North Tripura7
Dhalai171
Khowai13
Sepahijala10
South Tripura6
Unakoti2
West Tripura10

242 12

75 10

167 2

0

DistrictCases
Kargil57
LehLadakh35

73 20

30 20

43

0

DistrictCases
Anantnag253
Bandipora141
Shopian107
Srinagar203
Baramulla136
Budgam71
Ganderbal27
Jammu53
Kathua33
Kulgam190
Kupwara153
Rajouri14
Ramban67
Reasi14
Samba12
Udhampur63
Mirpur0
Muzaffarabad0
Doda2
Kishtwar4
Poonch16
Pulwama44

2036 115

1150 109

859 5

27 1

DistrictCases
Chamba20
Hamirpur98
Kangra73
Sirmaur4
Solan23
Una32
Bilaspur18
Kinnaur0
Kullu1
Lahaul And Spiti0
Mandi13
Shimla8

276 3

201 3

70

5

DistrictCases
Jalandhar263
Ludhiana247
Patiala124
Amritsar379
Barnala24
Faridkot70
Firozepur50
Gurdaspur143
Hoshiarpur120
Kapurthala41
Mansa32
Moga65
Pathankot46
S.A.S Nagar120
Sangrur105
Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar (Nawanshahr)95
Sri Muktsar Sahib68
Tarn Taran174
Bathinda52
Fatehgarh Sahib48
Fazilka50
Rupnagar (Ropar)63

2158 19

172

1946 28

40

DistrictCases
Haridwar36
Dehradun138
Nainital144
Almora41
Bageshwar16
Chamoli18
Champawat10
PauriGarhwal17
Pithoragarh22
Rudraprayag18
Tehri Garhwal61
Udam Singh Nagar61
Uttar Kashi11

500 31

417 31

79

4

DistrictCases
Bishnupur0
Chandel2
Churachandpur20
Imphal East4
Imphal West6
Jiribam0
Kakching0
Kamjong3
Kangpokpi2
Noney0
Pherzawl0
Senapati1
Tamenglong0
Tengnoupal2
Thoubal1
Ukhrul0

55 11

50 10

5 1

0

DistrictCases
Chandigarh290

288 9

95 7

189 2

4

DistrictCases
Daman0
Diu0

0

0

0

0

DistrictCases
East Khasi Hills18
East Garo Hills0
East Jaintia Hills0
North Garo Hills1
Ribhoi0
South Garo Hills0
South West Garo Hills0
South West Khasi Hills0
West Garo Hills2
West Jaintia Hills0
West Khasi Hills0

21 1

8 1

12

1

DistrictCases
Aizawl1
Champhai0
Hnahthial0
Khawzawl0
Kolasib0
Lawngtlai0
Lunglei0
Mamit0
Saiha0
Saitual0
Serchhip0

1

0

1

0

DistrictCases
Lakshadweep District0

0

0

0

0

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