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Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Are The Four Types Of Vaccines Being Worked On To Fight Coronavirus?

There are about 100 active project to develop a vaccine for the novel coronavirus, here are the different methods being used to develop the vaccine of the hour

Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Are The Four Types Of Vaccines Being Worked On To Fight Coronavirus?

New Delhi: The world is hoping for a breakthrough in the multiple efforts around the global to find a vaccine to conclusively end the fight against COVID-19 pandemic that has killed more than 2 lakh people. The major problem in tackling this pandemic is that it is a new coronavirus – SARS-CoV-2, for which research had to start from scratch to understand every aspect of the pandemic.

WHO says that currently there are about 100 active projects on, to develop a vaccine for the virus. At least six of these projects, have already begun human trials by injecting formulations into volunteers in safety trials; while the rest remain in animal testing phase.

Since it is a new virus, scientists across the globe are trying different types of vaccine to find a solution. As per A report by the medical journal, Nature, there are four main types of vaccines in development, each of these have been effective in protecting against some major diseases in the past.

Also Read: Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: Different Types Of Tests For COVID-19 And Their Efficacy

Virus vaccine

The report says that there are at least seven projects that are developing vaccines using the virus itself, which is in a weakened or inactivated form. An expert from Public Health Foundation of India, explains,

Using a weakened or inactivated form of the Sars-Cov-2, will help create a long lasting immunity. Because the vaccine will be so similar to the natural infection that it help prevent the virus by creating a strong and long-lasting immune response. Just 1 or 2 doses of most virus vaccines can give you a lifetime of protection against a germ and the disease it causes.

There are many existing vaccines that have been made using this method, like measles and polio.

However, this method requires extensive safety testing, she warns.

Also Read: What Is The Difference Between Pandemic And Epidemic?

Viral-vector vaccines

As per the report, in this method, a virus is genetically engineered so that it can produce coronavirus proteins in the body. Since these viruses are weakened, they cannot cause the disease. This method is used in case of measles or the recently approved ebola vaccination .

The genes used in such vaccines are chemically created in labs and are either inactive or weakened. In a way that similar to the virus vaccine, these pathogens create an immune response to an infection, the expert explained.

Around 25 groups are trying to develop viral-vector vaccines against the novel coronavirus.

Nucleic-acid vaccines

At least 20 teams are aiming to use genetic instructions, in the form of DNA or RNA, for a coronavirus protein that prompts an immune response, explains the report. In this type of vaccination, the nucleic acid is inserted into human cells, which then churn out copies of the virus protein; most of these vaccines encode the virus’s spike protein, the medical expert says,

DNA and RNA based vaccines are safe and easy to develop. To produce them, only genetic material is required and not the virus itself. But it helps in stimulating both the humoral and cellular arms of the adaptive human immune system.

This type of vaccine at the moment is being used against influenza virus, hepatitis B virus and rabies.

Also Read: Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Is Personal Protective Equipment? 

Protein-based vaccines

28 teams are trying protein based vaccine against COVID-19. In this method, coronavirus proteins directly injected into the body. According to the Nature report, fragments of proteins or protein shells that mimic the coronavirus’s outer coat can also be used. The first protein based vaccine was developed for Hepatitis B using this method.

These vaccines are generally not a one-shot vaccine and may require multiple doses as it needs immune-stimulating molecules along with the vaccine, she explained.

World

26,71,08,375Cases
22,77,48,418Active
3,40,89,137Recovered
52,70,820Deaths
Coronavirus has spread to 196 countries. The total confirmed cases worldwide are 26,71,08,375 and 52,70,820 have died; 22,77,48,418 are active cases and 3,40,89,137 have recovered as on December 8, 2021 at 3:48 am.

India

3,46,48,383 6,822Cases
95,0143,402Active
3,40,79,612 10,004Recovered
4,73,757 220Deaths
In India, there are 3,46,48,383 confirmed cases including 4,73,757 deaths. The number of active cases is 95,014 and 3,40,79,612 have recovered as on December 7, 2021 at 2:30 am.

State Details

State Cases Active Recovered Deaths
Maharashtra

66,39,296 518

10,528 298

64,87,593 811

1,41,175 5

Kerala

51,69,198 3,277

41,386 2,724

50,86,044 5,833

41,768 168

Karnataka

29,98,400 301

7,096 65

29,53,067 359

38,237 7

Tamil Nadu

27,31,235 719

8,013 28

26,86,683 737

36,539 10

Andhra Pradesh

20,73,852 122

2,030 92

20,57,369 213

14,453 1

Uttar Pradesh

17,10,485 10

137 3

16,87,437 7

22,911

West Bengal

16,19,722 465

7,590 49

15,92,579 505

19,553 9

Delhi

14,41,398 40

344 26

14,15,955 65

25,099 1

Odisha

10,50,354 105

2,010 144

10,39,921 248

8,423 1

Chhattisgarh

10,07,011 44

337 7

9,93,081 37

13,593

Rajasthan

9,54,920 29

221 0

9,45,743 28

8,956 1

Gujarat

8,27,745 38

350 1

8,17,300 37

10,095

Madhya Pradesh

7,93,258 17

137 4

7,82,593 13

10,528

Haryana

7,71,851 32

203 18

7,61,594 14

10,054

Bihar

7,26,244 7

28 2

7,14,126 5

12,090

Telangana

6,77,138 195

3,810 23

6,69,328 171

4,000 1

Assam

6,17,758 182

2,544 54

6,09,088 122

6,126 6

Punjab

6,03,509 21

333 28

5,86,565 46

16,611 3

Jharkhand

3,49,352 10

131 4

3,44,080 6

5,141

Uttarakhand

3,44,364 11

172 2

3,36,781 13

7,411

Jammu And Kashmir

3,37,915 108

1,661 45

3,31,771 151

4,483 2

Himachal Pradesh

2,27,630 112

776 21

2,23,001 90

3,853 1

Goa

1,79,209 35

413 1

1,75,409 34

3,387

Mizoram

1,36,784 330

3,120 19

1,33,156 310

508 1

Puducherry

1,29,093 8

250 30

1,26,968 38

1,875

Manipur

1,25,389 29

341 12

1,23,063 38

1,985 3

Tripura

84,866 8

93 3

83,948 5

825

Meghalaya

84,599 16

246 2

82,878 14

1,475

Chandigarh

65,500 12

62 4

64,618 8

820

Arunachal Pradesh

55,294 1

35 1

54,979 2

280

Sikkim

32,374 5

214 1

31,755 6

405

Nagaland

32,140 4

120 3

31,321 1

699

Ladakh

21,723 9

270 25

21,238 34

215

Dadra And Nagar Haveli

10,683

0 0

10,679

4

Lakshadweep

10,404

10 0

10,343

51

Andaman And Nicobar Islands

7,690 2

3 1

7,558 3

129

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