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Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Are The Four Types Of Vaccines Being Worked On To Fight Coronavirus?

There are about 100 active project to develop a vaccine for the novel coronavirus, here are the different methods being used to develop the vaccine of the hour

Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Are The Four Types Of Vaccines Being Worked On To Fight Coronavirus?

New Delhi: The world is hoping for a breakthrough in the multiple efforts around the global to find a vaccine to conclusively end the fight against COVID-19 pandemic that has killed more than 2 lakh people. The major problem in tackling this pandemic is that it is a new coronavirus – SARS-CoV-2, for which research had to start from scratch to understand every aspect of the pandemic.

WHO says that currently there are about 100 active projects on, to develop a vaccine for the virus. At least six of these projects, have already begun human trials by injecting formulations into volunteers in safety trials; while the rest remain in animal testing phase.

Since it is a new virus, scientists across the globe are trying different types of vaccine to find a solution. As per A report by the medical journal, Nature, there are four main types of vaccines in development, each of these have been effective in protecting against some major diseases in the past.

Also Read: Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: Different Types Of Tests For COVID-19 And Their Efficacy

Virus vaccine

The report says that there are at least seven projects that are developing vaccines using the virus itself, which is in a weakened or inactivated form. An expert from Public Health Foundation of India, explains,

Using a weakened or inactivated form of the Sars-Cov-2, will help create a long lasting immunity. Because the vaccine will be so similar to the natural infection that it help prevent the virus by creating a strong and long-lasting immune response. Just 1 or 2 doses of most virus vaccines can give you a lifetime of protection against a germ and the disease it causes.

There are many existing vaccines that have been made using this method, like measles and polio.

However, this method requires extensive safety testing, she warns.

Also Read: What Is The Difference Between Pandemic And Epidemic?

Viral-vector vaccines

As per the report, in this method, a virus is genetically engineered so that it can produce coronavirus proteins in the body. Since these viruses are weakened, they cannot cause the disease. This method is used in case of measles or the recently approved ebola vaccination .

The genes used in such vaccines are chemically created in labs and are either inactive or weakened. In a way that similar to the virus vaccine, these pathogens create an immune response to an infection, the expert explained.

Around 25 groups are trying to develop viral-vector vaccines against the novel coronavirus.

Nucleic-acid vaccines

At least 20 teams are aiming to use genetic instructions, in the form of DNA or RNA, for a coronavirus protein that prompts an immune response, explains the report. In this type of vaccination, the nucleic acid is inserted into human cells, which then churn out copies of the virus protein; most of these vaccines encode the virus’s spike protein, the medical expert says,

DNA and RNA based vaccines are safe and easy to develop. To produce them, only genetic material is required and not the virus itself. But it helps in stimulating both the humoral and cellular arms of the adaptive human immune system.

This type of vaccine at the moment is being used against influenza virus, hepatitis B virus and rabies.

Also Read: Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Is Personal Protective Equipment? 

Protein-based vaccines

28 teams are trying protein based vaccine against COVID-19. In this method, coronavirus proteins directly injected into the body. According to the Nature report, fragments of proteins or protein shells that mimic the coronavirus’s outer coat can also be used. The first protein based vaccine was developed for Hepatitis B using this method.

These vaccines are generally not a one-shot vaccine and may require multiple doses as it needs immune-stimulating molecules along with the vaccine, she explained.

World

24,20,23,922Cases
20,36,06,535Active
3,34,95,808Recovered
49,21,579Deaths
Coronavirus has spread to 195 countries. The total confirmed cases worldwide are 24,20,23,922 and 49,21,579 have died; 20,36,06,535 are active cases and 3,34,95,808 have recovered as on October 21, 2021 at 4:33 am.

India

3,41,27,450 18,454Cases
1,78,831 733Active
3,34,95,808 17,561Recovered
4,52,811 160Deaths
In India, there are 3,41,27,450 confirmed cases including 4,52,811 deaths. The number of active cases is 1,78,831 and 3,34,95,808 have recovered as on October 21, 2021 at 2:30 am.

State Details

State Cases Active Recovered Deaths
Maharashtra

65,96,645 1,825

29,333 1,075

64,27,426 2,879

1,39,886 21

Kerala

48,79,790 11,150

83,333 2,476

47,69,373 8,592

27,084 82

Karnataka

29,84,484 462

9,103 26

29,37,405 479

37,976 9

Tamil Nadu

26,90,633 1,170

14,058 268

26,40,627 1,418

35,948 20

Andhra Pradesh

20,61,810 523

5,566 88

20,41,924 608

14,320 3

Uttar Pradesh

17,10,058 11

112 6

16,87,048 17

22,898

West Bengal

15,82,813 867

7,491 63

15,56,315 795

19,007 9

Delhi

14,39,466 25

310 12

14,14,066 37

25,090

Odisha

10,36,532 559

4,387 106

10,23,849 451

8,296 2

Chhattisgarh

10,05,735 34

185 3

9,91,979 36

13,571 1

Rajasthan

9,54,393 1

38 0

9,45,401 1

8,954

Gujarat

8,26,340 14

176 9

8,16,077 22

10,087 1

Madhya Pradesh

7,92,709 9

82 3

7,82,104 6

10,523

Haryana

7,71,116 15

133 7

7,60,934 8

10,049

Bihar

7,26,036 3

30 12

7,16,345 15

9,661

Telangana

6,69,556 191

3,968 28

6,61,646 162

3,942 1

Assam

6,07,427 308

3,610 25

5,97,859 282

5,958 1

Punjab

6,02,113 32

232 16

5,85,331 15

16,550 1

Jharkhand

3,48,486 25

142 14

3,43,209 11

5,135

Uttarakhand

3,43,773 8

176 1

3,36,199 6

7,398 1

Jammu And Kashmir

3,31,299 78

800 3

3,26,070 80

4,429 1

Himachal Pradesh

2,21,936 110

1,394 46

2,16,815 64

3,727

Goa

1,77,706 47

597 23

1,73,755 70

3,354

Puducherry

1,27,521 42

461 29

1,25,208 71

1,852

Manipur

1,22,970 71

1,360 2

1,19,706 66

1,904 3

Mizoram

1,15,207 741

10,263 505

1,04,548 1,243

396 3

Tripura

84,351 2

95 7

83,440 9

816

Meghalaya

83,158 79

761 21

80,958 58

1,439

Chandigarh

65,312 2

24 1

64,468 3

820

Arunachal Pradesh

55,043 12

138 7

54,625 19

280

Sikkim

31,800 17

175 6

31,232 22

393 1

Nagaland

31,659 18

255 8

30,728 10

676

Ladakh

20,886 3

34 0

20,644 3

208

Dadra And Nagar Haveli

10,676

2 2

10,670 2

4

Lakshadweep

10,365

0 0

10,314

51

Andaman And Nicobar Islands

7,646

7 1

7,510 1

129

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