Connect with us


Study Sheds Light On How Inland, Coastal Waterways Influence Climate

A new study led by Princeton University identified how carbon is stored and transported through the intricacy of inland and coastal waterways

Study Sheds Light On How Inland, Coastal Waterways Influence Climate
Terrestrial and marine ecosystems have a powerful influence on climate by regulating the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide

New Jersey: A new study led by Princeton University identified how carbon is stored and transported through the intricacy of inland and coastal waterways. The study has significant implications for enforcing the carbon calculations that are part of international climate accords. The study was published in the journal, ‘Nature’.
Most global carbon-budgeting efforts assumed a linear flow of water from the land to the sea, which ignores the complex interplay between streams, rivers, lakes, groundwater, estuaries, mangroves and more.

Also Read: Study Finds Human Actions Speed Up Climate-Driven Floods, Droughts

A study co-led by climate scientist Laure Resplandy, an assistant professor of geosciences and the High Meadows Environmental Institute (HMEI) at Princeton University, detailed how carbon is stored and transported through the intricacy of inland and coastal waterways.

Terrestrial and marine ecosystems have a powerful influence on climate by regulating the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). These ecosystems, however, are often viewed as disconnected from each other, which ignores the transfer of carbon from land to the open ocean through a complex network of water bodies — the continuum of streams, rivers, estuaries and other bodies carrying water from land to the sea.

In a detailed analysis, the team of researchers from Belgium, the United States and France discovered that this land-to-ocean aquatic continuum (LOAC) carries a substantial amount of carbon of anthropogenic (e.g., fossil-fuel) origin. Thus, the carbon removed from the atmosphere by terrestrial ecosystems is not all stored locally, as is commonly assumed, which has implications for global agreements that require countries to report their carbon inventories.

The researchers also found that the land-to-ocean carbon transfer of natural origin was larger than previously thought, with far-reaching implications for the assessment of the anthropogenic CO2 uptake by the ocean and the land.

The complexity of the LOAC, which includes rivers, groundwater, lakes, reservoirs, estuaries, tidal marshes, mangroves, seagrasses, and waters above continental shelves, has made it challenging to assess its influence on the global carbon cycle, said Pierre Regnier, a professor at the University of Brussels who co-led the study with Laure Resplandy.

Also Read: US Climate Envoy Kerry Says China, India, Russia Must Do More To Tackle Warming

Because of that complexity, important global carbon-budgeting efforts, such as those of the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the Global Carbon Project, typically assume a direct “pipeline” transfer of carbon from river mouths to the open ocean.

Another common assumption was that all the transported carbon is natural, neglecting the impacts of human perturbations on this aquatic continuum, such as damming and the decimation of coastal vegetation.

In this study, the researchers synthesized more than 100 individual studies of the various components of the continuum. From this synthesis, LOAC carbon budgets were developed for two time periods: the pre-industrial period and the present day. Their results confirmed the well-known pre-industrial carbon “loop” in which carbon is taken up from the atmosphere by terrestrial ecosystems, transferred by rivers to the ocean, and then outgassed back to the atmosphere.

We find the amount of carbon carried by this natural land-to-ocean loop, 0.65 billion tons per year, is roughly 50 per cent greater than previously thought, Laure Resplandy said.

Furthermore, this loop is comprised of two smaller loops, one that transfers carbon from terrestrial ecosystems to inland waters and another from coastal vegetation (so-called “blue carbon ecosystems”) to the open ocean.

A larger pre-industrial land-to-ocean carbon transport implies that the ocean uptake of anthropogenic CO2 previously inferred from observations was underestimated, Laure Resplandy said.

“The flip side is that the land uptake of anthropogenic CO2 was overestimated,” added Professor Regnier. The study demonstrated that anthropogenic carbon carried by rivers is either outgassed back to the atmosphere or eventually stored in aquatic sediments and the open ocean.

Philippe Ciais, a research director at the Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement and a co-author of the study explained,

This new view of the anthropogenic CO2 budget may have a silver lining because sediments and the ocean offer arguably more stable repositories than terrestrial biomass and soil carbon, which are vulnerable to droughts, fires and land-use change.

The researchers also have shown that humans have decreased the uptake of atmospheric CO2 from blue-carbon ecosystems by up to 50 per cent.

If left unprotected from sea-level rise, pollution and coastal development, blue-carbon uptake of atmospheric CO2 will further decline and contribute to additional climate warming, said Raymond Najjar, a professor from the Pennsylvania State University who also co-authored the study.

Also Read: Meet Medha Priya, An Architect, Who Is Fighting Climate Change By Making Green & Sustainable Buildings

(Except for the headline, this story has not been edited by NDTV staff and is published from a syndicated feed.)

NDTV – Dettol have been working towards a clean and healthy India since 2014 via Banega Swachh India initiative, which is helmed by Campaign Ambassador Amitabh Bachchan. The campaign aims to highlight the inter-dependency of humans and the environment, and of humans on one another with the focus on One Health, One Planet, One Future – Leaving No One Behind. It stresses on the need to take care of, and consider, everyone’s health in India – especially vulnerable communities – the LGBTQ populationindigenous people, India’s different tribes, ethnic and linguistic minorities, people with disabilities, migrants, geographically remote populations, gender and sexual minorities. In wake of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the need for WASH (WaterSanitation and Hygiene) is reaffirmed as handwashing is one of the ways to prevent Coronavirus infection and other diseases. The campaign will continue to raise awareness on the same along with focussing on the importance of nutrition and healthcare for women and children, fight malnutrition, mental wellbeing, self care, science and health, adolescent health & gender awareness. Along with the health of people, the campaign has realised the need to also take care of the health of the eco-system. Our environment is fragile due to human activity,  that is not only over-exploiting available resources, but also generating immense pollution as a result of using and extracting those resources. The imbalance has also led to immense biodiversity loss that has caused one of the biggest threats to human survival – climate change. It has now been described as a “code red for humanity.” The campaign will continue to cover issues like air pollutionwaste managementplastic banmanual scavenging and sanitation workers and menstrual hygiene. Banega Swasth India will also be taking forward the dream of Swasth Bharat, the campaign feels that only a Swachh or clean India where toilets are used and open defecation free (ODF) status achieved as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2014, can eradicate diseases like diahorrea and the country can become a Swasth or healthy India.

Highlights: Banega Swasth India Season 9 Finale

Folk Music For A Swasth India

Folk Music

Reckitt’s Commitment To A Better Future

India’s Unsung Heroes

Women’s Health

हिंदी में पढ़ें