Unsafe Water, Air Pollution Among Leading Causes Of Under 5 Fatalities In India Along With Malnutrition: Study

Unsafe Water, Air Pollution Among Leading Causes Of Under 5 Fatalities In India Along With Malnutrition: Study

New studies on child survival show that more than 30 per cent of total districts in the country would need higher reduction in U5MR and 60 per cent of total districts would need higher reduction in NMR in order to meet 2030 SDGs
Malnutrition, News, Swasth India
- in Malnutrition, News, Swasth India
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Unsafe Water, Air Pollution Among Leading Causes Of Under 5 Fatalities In India Along With Malnutrition: StudyThe country has made some gains in child survival in the past 20 years but malnutrition continues to be the major cause of child deaths and poor child growth, find new studies conducted by ‘India State-Level Disease Burden’ Initiative of ICMR and PHFI
Highlights
  • Unsafe water caused 11% and air pollution caused 9% of child deaths in 2017
  • Under-five mortality is higher in economically underdeveloped districts
  • Neonatal Mortality Rate in India has dropped by 38 per cent since 2000

New Delhi: According to two new studies published by ‘India State-Level Disease Burden’ Initiative, the country has made some gains in terms of child survival over the past 20 years. However, the studies also reveal that in order to meet the proposed Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) for child survival by 2030, 34 per cent of total districts in the country would need to do a better job of reducing Under-Five Mortality Rate (U5MR) and 60 per cent of total districts would need to improve the rate of reduction in Neonatal Mortality Rate (NMR), which refers to the number of deaths in first 28 days of life per 1,000 live births.

Also Read: Child, Maternal Malnutrition Led To 68 Per Cent Under-Five Fatalities In India

The ‘India State-Level Disease Burden’ Initiative is a collaboration of Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Public Health Foundation of India (PHFI), Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), and a number of other health agencies in the country, under the aegis of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW). The two studies – district-level trends of child mortality in India from 2000-2017 and district-level trends of child growth failure have been published in The Lancet and EClinicalMedicine respectively.

Professor K Srinath Reddy, President, PHFI said,

Reductions in under-5 child mortality and neonatal mortality are promising as we move towards the SDG targets. Even neonatal mortality which was previously slow to change is now showing improvement. This decline needs to be further accelerated. Child malnutrition is a major factor along with maternal malnutrition for these deaths and should be given highest priority during planning. The inter-state and inter-district gaps in health and nutrition must be quickly bridged through equitable social development, nutrition and environmental health programmes.

Also Read: COVID-19 Could Cause Hundreds Of Thousands Of Additional Child Death: United Nations

Key Risk Factors For Child Survival In India- Malnutrition, Water And Sanitation, Air Pollution

The studies published by ‘India State-Level Disease Burden’ Initiative show that dominant risk factor for under-five death in India in 2017 was child and maternal malnutrition followed by unsafe water, sanitation and air pollution. In the year 2017, child and maternal malnutrition caused 68.2 per cent of under-five deaths and 83 per cent of NMR. 10·8 per cent of under-five deaths could be attributed to unsafe water and sanitation and 9 per cent to air pollution.

Unsafe Water, Air Pollution Among Leading Causes Of Under 5 Fatalities In India Along With Malnutrition: Study
Major causes of under-five deaths in 2017

According to the study on child growth failure published in EClinicalMedicine titled ‘Mapping of variations in child stunting, wasting and underweight within the states of India: the Global Burden of Disease Study 2000- 2017’, India has shown improvement in tackling child growth failure, measured as stunting, wasting and underweight since 2000.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines Stunting as a condition where a child suffers from growth retardation or has low height-for-age; Wasting in children is a symptom of acute undernutrition or has low weight-for-height. According to Dr. Raman Dhara, Additional Professor, Indian Institute of Public Health (IIPH), Hyderabad, while stunting is caused by long-term insufficient nutrient intake and repeated infections, wasting is a result of acute food shortage and illness.

The prevalence of stunting in the country decreased from 55.8 per cent in 2000 to 47.3 per cent in 2010 and 39.3 per cent in 2017. The prevalence of wasting decreased from 19.2 per cent in 2000 to 17.1 per cent in 2010 and to 15.7 per cent in 2017 in the country. The prevalence of underweight decreased from 53.4 per cent in 2000 to 40.9 per cent in 2010, and 32.7 per cent in 2017.

Prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight in the country
Prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight in the country

Also Read: Malnutrition – Free India: Lok Sabha Speaker Om Birla Launches ‘Suposhit Maa Abhiyan’ In Kota

Under-Five Mortality Rate In The Country Has Dropped By 49 Per Cent Over The Past 20 Years

The paper on child mortality published in The Lancet titled ‘Subnational Mapping Of Under-5 And Neonatal Mortality Trends In India: The Global Burden Of Disease Study 2000–17’ shows that there were 1.04 million under-five deaths in India in 2017, down from 2.24 million under-five deaths in 2000.

The country has reduced U5MR by 49 per cent over the past 20 years. While in the year 2000, it was 83 deaths per 1,000 live births, U5MR has reduced to 42 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2017. However, it must be noted that it is still far from the SDG target of 25 deaths per 1,000 live births.

India is still far behind the Sustainable Goal Targets for Under-5 Mortality Rate
India is still far behind the Sustainable Goal Targets for Under-5 Mortality Rate

The study further reveals that Uttar Pradesh with U5MR of 60 deaths per 1,000 live births and Bihar with U5MR of 44 deaths per 1,000 live births suffered a maximum number of under-five deaths in 2017 (3,12,800 and 1,41,500 respectively). Other poor performing states in 2017 are: Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Assam. The best performing states are: Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Sikkim, Kerala, Delhi, Goa.

Kerala tops among states on Under-Five Mortality Rate
Kerala tops among states on Under-Five Mortality Rate

The annual rate of reduction from 2010 to 2017 for U5MR ranged among the states from 2.7 per cent in Nagaland to 6.5 per cent in Telangana.

According to the study, the U5MR was lower in states with an increasing level of development in the states.

The study shows that across the 723 states across the country that were studied, U5MR varies from 8 to 88 per 1,000 live births and 88 per cent of the districts in the less developed states have U5MR 40 or more per 1,000 live births.

Overall, 34 per cent of the total district would need to improve the rate of reducing the U5MR compared to the 2017 levels in order to meet the SDG 2030 target for U5MR.

Also Read: Nutrition In India: PETA India Calls For Vegan Mid-Day Meals, Experts Differ

A 38 Per Cent Drop In Neonatal Mortality Rate Over The Past 20 Years

When it comes to NMR, the study published in Lancet on child mortality shows that neonatal deaths have nearly halved to 0.57 million neonatal deaths in 2017, down from 1.02 million neonatal deaths in 2000. NMR in the country has reduced by 38 per cent during 2000-2017 from 38 deaths to 23 deaths per 1,000 live births during this period. The study says,

The reduction in NMR has been less than for U5MR, and this reduction has been quite variable across states and districts.

Kerala tops among states on Neonatal Mortality Rate
Kerala tops among states on Neonatal Mortality Rate

The study shows that across all the districts in the country, the NMR ranged from 6 to 46 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2017. NMR was 20 or more deaths per 1,000 live births in 93 per cent of the districts of low-development states.

India is still far behind the Sustainable Goal Targets for Neonatal Mortality Rate
India is still far behind the Sustainable Goal Targets for Neonatal Mortality Rate

It further states that in order to achieve the SDG target of 12 deaths per 1,000 live births, about 60 per cent of all districts of the country need to improve the annual rate of reduction in NMR. The annual rate of reduction of NMR was lower than that of U5MR in all states during 2010-2017 and ranged from 1.8 per cent reduction in NMR in Nagaland to 5.5 per cent reduction in NMR in Tamil Nadu.

Also Read: Malnutrition-Free India: Researchers Develop Tool To Tackle Diet Epidemic In India

World

2,02,84,269Cases
69,57,851Active
1,25,85,308Recovered
7,41,110Deaths
Coronavirus has spread to 188 countries. The total confirmed cases worldwide are 2,02,84,269 and 7,41,110 have died; 69,57,851 are active cases and 1,25,85,308 have recovered as on August 12, 2020 at 4:13 am.

India

23,29,638 60963Cases
6,43,948 4019Active
16,39,599 56110Recovered
46,091 834Deaths
In India, there are 23,29,638 confirmed cases including 46,091 deaths. The number of active cases is 6,43,948 and 16,39,599 have recovered as on August 12, 2020 at 2:30 am.

State & District Details

State Cases Active Recovered Deaths
DistrictCases
Akola757
Aurangabad1974
Dhule228
Jalgaon1039
Mumbai45478
Mumbai Suburban5363
Nagpur692
Nashik1575
Palghar1421
Pune9920
Satara629
Solapur1291
Thane13660
Yavatmal150
Ahmednagar190
Amravati291
Beed54
Bhandara41
Buldhana88
Chandrapur32
Hingoli208
Jalna201
Kolhapur646
Latur139
Nanded176
Nandurbar42
Parbhani78
Raigad1462
Ratnagiri350
Sangli145
Gadchiroli42
gondia69
Osmanabad125
Sindhudurg114
Wardha11
Washim13

535601 11088

148860 818

368435 10014

18306 256

DistrictCases
Chittoor319
Guntur511
Krishna557
Kurnool795
Sri Potti Sriramulu Nell*296
Anantapur428
East Godavari356
Prakasam104
Srikakulam183
Visakhapatnam103
West Godavari199
Y.S.R.205
Vizianagaram23

244549 9024

87597

154749 9113

2203 87

DistrictCases
Bengaluru Rural40
Bengaluru Urban529
Mysuru107
Bagalkote103
Ballari60
Belagavi337
Bidar219
Chikkaballapura149
Dakshina Kannada179
Dharwad61
Gadag45
Kalaburagi669
Mandya346
Tumakuru36
Uttara Kannada95
Vijayapura201
Chamarajanagara0
Chikkamagaluru19
Chitradurga14
Davangere204
Hassan205
Haveri24
Kodagu4
Kolar29
Koppal5
Raichur369
Ramanagara3
Shivamogga67
Udupi1176
Yadgir538

188611 6257

79614

105599 6473

3398 86

DistrictCases
North Goa57
South Goa69

9444 415

2878 137

6480 272

86 6

DistrictCases
Chengalpattu1314
Chennai23324
Kanchipuram503
Madurai322
Namakkal83
Ranipet133
Thanjavur130
Thiruvallur774
Thiruvarur67
Tiruppur116
Vellore71
Virudhunagar185
Ariyalur444
Coimbatore188
Cuddalore477
Dharmapuri15
Dindigul175
Erode75
Kallakurichi324
Kanniyakumari110
Karur88
Nagapattinam99
Perambalur133
Pudukkottai53
Ramanathapuram119
Salem258
Sivaganga46
Tenkasi103
The Nilgiris17
Theni129
Tiruchirappalli119
Tirunelveli433
Tirupathur45
Tiruvannamalai496
Tuticorin333
Villupuram509
Krishnagiri43

308649 5834

52810

250680 6005

5159 118

DistrictCases
Kannur357
Kottayam73
Alappuzha76
Idukki40
Kasaragod333
Kollam118
Kozhikode90
Malappuram119
Palakkad224
Pathanamthitta98
Thiruvananthapuram104
Thrissur106
Ernakulam60
Wayanad36

36932 1417

12770

24042 1426

120 5

DistrictCases
Raipur46
Korba100
Balod41
Baloda Bazar85
Balrampur17
Bastar2
Bemetara21
Bijapur2
Bilaspur100
Dantewada0
Dhamtari6
Durg31
Gariyaband10
Janjgir-Champa56
Jashpur77
Kabirdham52
Kanker19
Kondagaon0
Korea39
Mahasamund54
Mungeli87
Narayanpur0
Raigarh47
Rajnandgaon52
Sukma0
Surajpur9
Surguja14

12929 481

3586 250

9239 226

104 5

DistrictCases
Hyderabad2475
MedchalMalkajgiri75
Ranga Reddy183
Suryapet87
Vikarabad40
Warangal Urban32
Adilabad22
Jagitial77
Jangoan8
Jayashankar Bhupalapally9
Jogulamba Gadwal40
Kamareddy11
Karimnagar17
Khammam26
Kumuram Bheem Asifabad8
Mahabubnagar30
Mancherial43
Medak11
Nalgonda33
Narayanpet3
Nirmal21
Nizamabad76
RajannaSircilla16
Sangareddy26
Bhadradri Kothagudem5
Mahabubabad10
Mulugu3
Nagarkurnool8
Peddapalli5
Siddipet7
Wanaparthy1
Warangal Rural4
YadadriBhuvanagiri40

84544 1897

22596

61294 1920

654 9

DistrictCases
Baleshwar190
Bhadrak137
Jajapur322
Dhenkanal36
Kalahandi33
Kendrapara164
Khordha238
Koraput16
Sundargarh102
Anugul26
Balangir129
Bargarh16
Boudh34
Cuttack155
Deogarh33
Gajapati61
Ganjam581
Jagatsinghapur91
Jharsuguda8
Kandhamal28
Kendujhar34
Malkangiri20
Mayurbhanj73
Nabarangpur2
Nayagarh86
Nuapada69
Puri103
Rayagada2
Sambalpur16
Sonepur29

48796 1341

13694

34806 1785

296 10

DistrictCases
Barwani60
Bhopal1880
Dewas140
Dhar132
East Nimar266
Gwalior211
Indore3839
Jabalpur276
Ujjain799
Agar Malwa15
Alirajpur3
Betul35
Burhanpur351
Chhindwara16
Dindori29
Harda4
Hoshangabad37
Khargone196
Mandsaur112
Morena109
Raisen71
Ratlam51
Sagar228
Shajapur39
Shandol14
Sheopur26
Tikamgarh18
Vidisha37
Anuppur22
Ashoknagar13
Balaghat9
Bhind87
Chhatarpur35
Damoh26
Datia12
Guna8
Jhabua14
Katni3
Mandla15
Narsinghpur17
Neemuch319
Niwari0
Panna20
Rajgarh31
Rewa39
Satna24
Sehore12
Seoni2
Shivpuri15
Sidhi17
Singrauli13
Umaria10

40734 843

9105

30596 922

1033 18

DistrictCases
Ahmadabad17125
Anand107
Arvalli134
Banas Kantha147
Bhavnagar146
Gandhinagar410
PanchMahals107
Surat2311
Vadodara1555
Bharuch56
Botad55
Chhotaudepur37
Dang5
Dohad43
GirSomnath45
Jamnagar63
Kachchh99
Kheda98
Mahesana159
Mahisagar125
Narmada25
Naysari35
Patan105
Rajkot135
SabarKantha101
Surendranagar55
Tapi6
Valsad47
Amreli16
DevbhumiDwarka22
Junagadh31
Morbi4
Porbandar11

73163 1132

14024

56444 1140

2695 23

DistrictCases
Ajmer379
Banswara91
Bharatpur563
Jaipur2177
Jhalawar329
Jodhpur1748
Kota503
Nagaur500
Alwar90
Barmer34
Bhilwara250
Bikaner112
Chittorgarh188
Churu81
Dausa61
Dholpur60
Dungarpur374
Hanumangarh31
Jaisalmer53
Jhunjhunu64
Karauli17
Pali352
Rajsamand140
SawaiMadhopur26
Sikar231
Tonk171
Udaipur724
Baran59
Bundi5
Ganganagar8
Jalore164
Pratapgarh14
Sirohi130

54887 1217

13677

40399 1339

811 11

DistrictCases
Faridabad867
Sonipat404
Ambala93
Bhiwani60
CharkiDadri43
Fatehabad38
Gurugram2950
Hisar98
Jhajjar114
Jind38
Kaithal48
Karnal104
Kurukshetra55
Nuh68
Palwal120
Panchkula39
Panipat78
Rohtak145
Sirsa50
Yamunanagar19
Mahendragarh47
Rewari56

43227 798

6645 197

36082 590

500 11

DistrictCases
Agra933
Aligarh215
Amroha80
Bareilly17
Bijnor157
Bulandshahr166
Firozabad190
Gautam Buddha Nagar1119
Kanpur Nagar286
Lucknow386
Mathura129
Meerut504
Moradabad252
Muzaffarnagar117
Rae Bareli78
Rampur203
Saharanpur298
Sant Kabeer Nagar132
Varanasi243
Auraiya37
Ayodhya120
Azamgarh138
Baghpat68
Bahraich73
Balrampur49
Banda27
Basti214
Bhadohi60
Budaun23
Etah52
Etawah46
Ghaziabad794
Ghazipur159
Gonda59
Gorakhpur166
Hapur225
Hardoi49
Jalaun41
Jaunpur194
Jhansi41
Kannauj69
Kasganj16
Kaushambi6
Mainpuri46
Mau48
Mirzapur22
Pilibhit15
Pratapgarh15
Prayagraj30
Sambhal116
Shamli40
Shravasti23
Sitapur32
Sultanpur97
Unnao42
Ambedkar Nagar92
Amethi206
Ballia60
Barabanki168
Chandauli38
Chitrakoot4
Deoria143
Farrukhabad36
Fatehpur3
Hamirpur3
Hathras43
Kanpur Dehat4
Kheri72
Kushi Nagar67
Lalitpur3
Maharajganj85
Mahoba3
Shahjahanpur25
Siddharth Nagar159
Sonbhadra10

131763 5041

48998 1120

80589 3865

2176 56

DistrictCases
Central4817
East2472
New Delhi3405
North3059
North East1914
North West5463
Shahdara1580
South2329
South East2446
South West2391
West4768

147391 1257

10868 522

132384 727

4139 8

DistrictCases
Dhubri30
Goalpara19
Marigaon50
Baksa14
Barpeta28
Biswanath16
Bongaigaon12
Cachar80
Charaideo29
Chirang6
Darrang20
Dhemaji47
Dibrugarh61
Dima Hasao86
Golaghat203
Hailakandi57
Hojai89
Jorhat24
Kamrup42
Kamrup Metro276
KarbiAnglong13
Karimganj85
Kokrajhar37
Lakhimpur57
Majuli2
Nagaon143
Nalbari23
Sivasagar20
Sonitpur27
South SalmaraMancachar4
Tinsukia84
Udalguri28
West KarbiAnglong5

64406 2669

19178 1178

45073 1487

155 4

DistrictCases
East District3
North District0
South District3
West District0

913 3

378

534 24

1

DistrictCases
Buxar134
Gaya115
Munger188
Patna279
Rohtas256
Arwal52
Aurangabad75
Banka134
Begusarai243
Bhagalpur266
Bhojpur103
Darbhanga143
Gopalganj123
Jehanabad178
Kaimur (bhabua)105
Lakhisarai72
Madhepura82
Madhubani199
Nalanda123
Nawada122
PurbiChamparan138
Purnia135
Saran101
Siwan139
Vaishali87
Araria68
Jamui47
Katihar175
Khagaria253
Kishanganj75
Muzaffarpur96
Pashchim Champaran57
Saharsa88
Samastipur139
Sheikhpura118
Sheohar20
Sitamarhi73
Supaul87

86413 3863

29291 1226

56709 2621

413 16

DistrictCases
24 Paraganas North1031
24 Paraganas South281
Darjeeling97
Howrah1435
Jalpaiguri88
Kalimpong18
Kolkata2777
Maldah235
Medinipur East153
Medinipur West159
Hooghly604
Murshidabad125
Nadia139
Paschim Bardhaman70
Purba Bardhaman130
Alipurduar39
Bankura116
Birbhum206
Coochbehar210
Dinajpur Dakshin50
Dinajpur Uttar216
Jhargram9
Purulia66

101390 2931

25846

73395 3067

2149 49

DistrictCases
South Andamans33
Nicobars1
North And Middle Andaman1

1764 139

994 98

749 40

21 1

DistrictCases
Pondicherry111
Karaikal2
Mahe4
Yanam0

5900 276

2277 97

3532 177

91 2

DistrictCases
Anjaw0
Changlang31
Dibang Valley0
East Kameng0
East Siang1
Kamle0
KraDaadi0
KurungKumey0
Leparada0
Lohit3
Longding0
Lower Dibang Valley0
Lower Siang0
Lower Subansiri0
Namsai2
PakkeKessang1
Papum Pare8
Shi Yomi0
Siang0
Tawang1
Tirap0
Upper Siang1
Upper Subansiri0
West Kameng0
West Siang1

2327 96

690 54

1634 42

3

DistrictCases
Dimapur20
Kiphire3
Kohima7
Longleng0
Mokokchung0
Mon8
Peren2
Phek1
Tuensang3
Wokha0
Zunheboto0

3031 20

2032 2

991 18

8

DistrictCases
Dadra And Nagar Haveli20

1653 40

442

1209 42

2

DistrictCases
Ranchi148
Bokaro16
Deoghar5
Dhanbad32
Garhwa80
Giridih19
Hazaribagh110
Jamtara2
Koderma58
Simdega48
Chatra1
Dumka5
East Singhbum170
Godda2
Gumla28
Khunti10
Latehar14
Lohardaga8
Pakur4
Palamu27
Ramgarh75
Sahebganj0
SaraikelaKharsawan20
West Singhbhum21

19225 502

8658

10375 651

192 4

DistrictCases
Gomati74
North Tripura14
Dhalai196
Khowai24
Sepahijala174
South Tripura53
Unakoti49
West Tripura45

6482 110

1601

4838 182

43

DistrictCases
Kargil77
LehLadakh43

1770 53

506 35

1255 18

9

DistrictCases
Anantnag395
Bandipora175
Shopian255
Srinagar300
Baramulla271
Budgam110
Ganderbal37
Jammu138
Kathua53
Kulgam295
Kupwara231
Rajouri39
Ramban151
Reasi26
Samba25
Udhampur155
Mirpur0
Muzaffarabad0
Doda27
Kishtwar10
Poonch35
Pulwama108

25931 564

7462

17979 604

490 12

DistrictCases
Chamba29
Hamirpur117
Kangra105
Sirmaur11
Solan32
Una41
Bilaspur21
Kinnaur2
Kullu4
Lahaul And Spiti0
Mandi21
Shimla10

3497 34

1206

2273 68

18 1

DistrictCases
Jalandhar297
Ludhiana293
Patiala132
Amritsar485
Barnala25
Faridkot74
Firozepur50
Gurdaspur154
Hoshiarpur140
Kapurthala44
Mansa31
Moga65
Pathankot86
S.A.S Nagar137
Sangrur107
Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar (Nawanshahr)99
Sri Muktsar Sahib71
Tarn Taran163
Bathinda60
Fatehgarh Sahib57
Fazilka53
Rupnagar (Ropar)74

25889 1000

8463

16790 1055

636 32

DistrictCases
Haridwar94
Dehradun370
Nainital323
Almora71
Bageshwar31
Chamoli36
Champawat45
PauriGarhwal36
Pithoragarh43
Rudraprayag30
Tehri Garhwal110
Udam Singh Nagar83
Uttar Kashi24

10432 411

3826 240

6470 169

136 2

DistrictCases
Bishnupur7
Chandel5
Churachandpur32
Imphal East10
Imphal West21
Jiribam3
Kakching2
Kamjong5
Kangpokpi26
Noney1
Pherzawl3
Senapati6
Tamenglong2
Tengnoupal9
Thoubal18
Ukhrul4

3941 88

1801 81

2128 6

12 1

DistrictCases
Chandigarh313

1670 75

629 63

1015 11

26 1

DistrictCases
East Khasi Hills22
East Garo Hills0
East Jaintia Hills0
North Garo Hills1
Ribhoi0
South Garo Hills0
South West Garo Hills4
South West Khasi Hills0
West Garo Hills5
West Jaintia Hills1
West Khasi Hills1

1136 22

621 11

509 11

6

DistrictCases
Aizawl10
Champhai0
Hnahthial0
Khawzawl0
Kolasib11
Lawngtlai2
Lunglei2
Mamit8
Saiha0
Saitual1
Serchhip0

648 25

325 25

323

0

DistrictCases
Lakshadweep District0

0

0

0

0

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As part of the de-worming campaign launched by Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath, de-worming medicines will be administered to children from one to 12 years old and teenagers aged up to 19 years in 11 districts of the state