Unsafe Water, Air Pollution Among Leading Causes Of Under 5 Fatalities In India Along With Malnutrition: Study

Unsafe Water, Air Pollution Among Leading Causes Of Under 5 Fatalities In India Along With Malnutrition: Study

New studies on child survival show that more than 30 per cent of total districts in the country would need higher reduction in U5MR and 60 per cent of total districts would need higher reduction in NMR in order to meet 2030 SDGs
Malnutrition, News, Swasth India
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Unsafe Water, Air Pollution Among Leading Causes Of Under 5 Fatalities In India Along With Malnutrition: StudyThe country has made some gains in child survival in the past 20 years but malnutrition continues to be the major cause of child deaths and poor child growth, find new studies conducted by ‘India State-Level Disease Burden’ Initiative of ICMR and PHFI
Highlights
  • Unsafe water caused 11% and air pollution caused 9% of child deaths in 2017
  • Under-five mortality is higher in economically underdeveloped districts
  • Neonatal Mortality Rate in India has dropped by 38 per cent since 2000

New Delhi: According to two new studies published by ‘India State-Level Disease Burden’ Initiative, the country has made some gains in terms of child survival over the past 20 years. However, the studies also reveal that in order to meet the proposed Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) for child survival by 2030, 34 per cent of total districts in the country would need to do a better job of reducing Under-Five Mortality Rate (U5MR) and 60 per cent of total districts would need to improve the rate of reduction in Neonatal Mortality Rate (NMR), which refers to the number of deaths in first 28 days of life per 1,000 live births.

Also Read: Child, Maternal Malnutrition Led To 68 Per Cent Under-Five Fatalities In India

The ‘India State-Level Disease Burden’ Initiative is a collaboration of Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Public Health Foundation of India (PHFI), Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), and a number of other health agencies in the country, under the aegis of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW). The two studies – district-level trends of child mortality in India from 2000-2017 and district-level trends of child growth failure have been published in The Lancet and EClinicalMedicine respectively.

Professor K Srinath Reddy, President, PHFI said,

Reductions in under-5 child mortality and neonatal mortality are promising as we move towards the SDG targets. Even neonatal mortality which was previously slow to change is now showing improvement. This decline needs to be further accelerated. Child malnutrition is a major factor along with maternal malnutrition for these deaths and should be given highest priority during planning. The inter-state and inter-district gaps in health and nutrition must be quickly bridged through equitable social development, nutrition and environmental health programmes.

Also Read: COVID-19 Could Cause Hundreds Of Thousands Of Additional Child Death: United Nations

Key Risk Factors For Child Survival In India- Malnutrition, Water And Sanitation, Air Pollution

The studies published by ‘India State-Level Disease Burden’ Initiative show that dominant risk factor for under-five death in India in 2017 was child and maternal malnutrition followed by unsafe water, sanitation and air pollution. In the year 2017, child and maternal malnutrition caused 68.2 per cent of under-five deaths and 83 per cent of NMR. 10·8 per cent of under-five deaths could be attributed to unsafe water and sanitation and 9 per cent to air pollution.

Unsafe Water, Air Pollution Among Leading Causes Of Under 5 Fatalities In India Along With Malnutrition: Study
Major causes of under-five deaths in 2017

According to the study on child growth failure published in EClinicalMedicine titled ‘Mapping of variations in child stunting, wasting and underweight within the states of India: the Global Burden of Disease Study 2000- 2017’, India has shown improvement in tackling child growth failure, measured as stunting, wasting and underweight since 2000.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines Stunting as a condition where a child suffers from growth retardation or has low height-for-age; Wasting in children is a symptom of acute undernutrition or has low weight-for-height. According to Dr. Raman Dhara, Additional Professor, Indian Institute of Public Health (IIPH), Hyderabad, while stunting is caused by long-term insufficient nutrient intake and repeated infections, wasting is a result of acute food shortage and illness.

The prevalence of stunting in the country decreased from 55.8 per cent in 2000 to 47.3 per cent in 2010 and 39.3 per cent in 2017. The prevalence of wasting decreased from 19.2 per cent in 2000 to 17.1 per cent in 2010 and to 15.7 per cent in 2017 in the country. The prevalence of underweight decreased from 53.4 per cent in 2000 to 40.9 per cent in 2010, and 32.7 per cent in 2017.

Prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight in the country
Prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight in the country

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Under-Five Mortality Rate In The Country Has Dropped By 49 Per Cent Over The Past 20 Years

The paper on child mortality published in The Lancet titled ‘Subnational Mapping Of Under-5 And Neonatal Mortality Trends In India: The Global Burden Of Disease Study 2000–17’ shows that there were 1.04 million under-five deaths in India in 2017, down from 2.24 million under-five deaths in 2000.

The country has reduced U5MR by 49 per cent over the past 20 years. While in the year 2000, it was 83 deaths per 1,000 live births, U5MR has reduced to 42 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2017. However, it must be noted that it is still far from the SDG target of 25 deaths per 1,000 live births.

India is still far behind the Sustainable Goal Targets for Under-5 Mortality Rate
India is still far behind the Sustainable Goal Targets for Under-5 Mortality Rate

The study further reveals that Uttar Pradesh with U5MR of 60 deaths per 1,000 live births and Bihar with U5MR of 44 deaths per 1,000 live births suffered a maximum number of under-five deaths in 2017 (3,12,800 and 1,41,500 respectively). Other poor performing states in 2017 are: Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Assam. The best performing states are: Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Sikkim, Kerala, Delhi, Goa.

Kerala tops among states on Under-Five Mortality Rate
Kerala tops among states on Under-Five Mortality Rate

The annual rate of reduction from 2010 to 2017 for U5MR ranged among the states from 2.7 per cent in Nagaland to 6.5 per cent in Telangana.

According to the study, the U5MR was lower in states with an increasing level of development in the states.

The study shows that across the 723 states across the country that were studied, U5MR varies from 8 to 88 per 1,000 live births and 88 per cent of the districts in the less developed states have U5MR 40 or more per 1,000 live births.

Overall, 34 per cent of the total district would need to improve the rate of reducing the U5MR compared to the 2017 levels in order to meet the SDG 2030 target for U5MR.

Also Read: Nutrition In India: PETA India Calls For Vegan Mid-Day Meals, Experts Differ

A 38 Per Cent Drop In Neonatal Mortality Rate Over The Past 20 Years

When it comes to NMR, the study published in Lancet on child mortality shows that neonatal deaths have nearly halved to 0.57 million neonatal deaths in 2017, down from 1.02 million neonatal deaths in 2000. NMR in the country has reduced by 38 per cent during 2000-2017 from 38 deaths to 23 deaths per 1,000 live births during this period. The study says,

The reduction in NMR has been less than for U5MR, and this reduction has been quite variable across states and districts.

Kerala tops among states on Neonatal Mortality Rate
Kerala tops among states on Neonatal Mortality Rate

The study shows that across all the districts in the country, the NMR ranged from 6 to 46 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2017. NMR was 20 or more deaths per 1,000 live births in 93 per cent of the districts of low-development states.

India is still far behind the Sustainable Goal Targets for Neonatal Mortality Rate
India is still far behind the Sustainable Goal Targets for Neonatal Mortality Rate

It further states that in order to achieve the SDG target of 12 deaths per 1,000 live births, about 60 per cent of all districts of the country need to improve the annual rate of reduction in NMR. The annual rate of reduction of NMR was lower than that of U5MR in all states during 2010-2017 and ranged from 1.8 per cent reduction in NMR in Nagaland to 5.5 per cent reduction in NMR in Tamil Nadu.

Also Read: Malnutrition-Free India: Researchers Develop Tool To Tackle Diet Epidemic In India

World

17,59,54,708Cases
5,81,66,715Active
11,39,84,189Recovered
38,03,804Deaths
Coronavirus has spread to 193 countries. The total confirmed cases worldwide are 17,59,54,708 and 38,03,804 have died; 5,81,66,715 are active cases and 11,39,84,189 have recovered as on June 14, 2021 at 3:36 am.

India

2,95,10,410 70,421Cases
9,73,15853,001Active
2,81,62,947 1,19,501Recovered
3,74,305 3,921Deaths
In India, there are 2,95,10,410 confirmed cases including 3,74,305 deaths. The number of active cases is 9,73,158 and 2,81,62,947 have recovered as on June 14, 2021 at 2:30 am.

State Details

State Cases Active Recovered Deaths
Maharashtra

59,08,992 10,442

1,58,617 167

56,39,271 7,504

1,11,104 2,771

Karnataka

27,65,134 7,810

1,80,856 10,961

25,51,365 18,646

32,913 125

Kerala

27,28,239 11,584

1,23,433 6,478

25,93,625 17,856

11,181 206

Tamil Nadu

23,53,721 14,016

1,49,927 12,146

21,74,247 25,895

29,547 267

Andhra Pradesh

18,09,844 6,770

85,637 5,780

17,12,267 12,492

11,940 58

Uttar Pradesh

17,02,624 452

8,986 820

16,71,852 1,221

21,786 51

West Bengal

14,61,257 3,984

17,651 1,403

14,26,710 2,497

16,896 84

Delhi

14,31,139 255

3,466 144

14,02,850 376

24,823 23

Chhattisgarh

9,86,963 459

13,677 1,405

9,59,969 1,858

13,317 6

Rajasthan

9,49,684 308

7,441 959

9,33,421 1,260

8,822 7

Odisha

8,51,782 4,469

51,681 3,309

7,96,799 7,733

3,302 45

Gujarat

8,20,321 455

10,249 614

8,00,075 1,063

9,997 6

Madhya Pradesh

7,88,183 274

4,251 524

7,75,380 780

8,552 18

Haryana

7,65,861 339

4,661 525

7,52,208 821

8,992 43

Bihar

7,17,215 487

5,312 389

7,02,411 868

9,492 8

Telangana

6,03,369 1,280

21,137 996

5,78,748 2,261

3,484 15

Punjab

5,87,903 956

12,981 1,083

5,59,360 1,980

15,562 59

Assam

4,59,497 2,167

41,373 3,272

4,14,173 5,403

3,951 36

Jharkhand

3,43,458 154

3,395 571

3,34,979 723

5,084 2

Uttarakhand

3,36,879 263

4,633 388

3,25,311 644

6,935 7

Jammu And Kashmir

3,07,412 774

15,081 1,203

2,88,145 1,965

4,186 12

Himachal Pradesh

1,98,550 237

4,777 625

1,90,382 855

3,391 7

Goa

1,62,468 420

4,882 175

1,54,658 581

2,928 14

Puducherry

1,12,528 402

5,331 414

1,05,513 809

1,684 7

Chandigarh

61,110 54

520 20

59,798 71

792 3

Manipur

59,852 530

8,499 211

50,379 726

974 15

Tripura

59,321 235

5,170 382

53,531 610

620 7

Meghalaya

41,906 305

4,623 248

36,550 547

733 6

Arunachal Pradesh

31,282 134

2,885 302

28,252 434

145 2

Nagaland

23,644 82

3,502 131

19,689 208

453 5

Ladakh

19,561 17

658 88

18,706 105

197

Sikkim

18,414 157

3,553 230

14,580 387

281

Mizoram

15,364 97

3,549 111

11,748 203

67 5

Dadra And Nagar Haveli

10,463 1

78 17

10,381 18

4

Lakshadweep

9,209 34

576 39

8,589 72

44 1

Andaman And Nicobar Islands

7,261 18

110 11

7,025 29

126

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