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Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Is Antibody Test And What Role Does It Play In The Fight Against COVID-19?

Antibody test also known as a serology test determines whether the human body had contracted the COVID-19 in the past and now have antibodies to fight against the virus

COVID-19 Antibodies Present In Patients Four Months After Recovery: Study
Highlights
  • Antibody test checks for antibodies; not a diagnosis for COVID-19
  • Antibodies are immune response that body develops against any infection
  • Antibody test is easy to do, cheap and gives results in 30 minutes

New Delhi: “We have a simple message for all countries: test, test, test. Test every suspected case. The most effective way to prevent infections and save lives is breaking the chain of transmission. And to do that, you must test and isolate”, Dr Tedros Adhanom, Director General of the World Health Organisation had said in a media briefing. Testing is considered as one of the best ways to know who, where, and how many are infected with the highly contagious disease COVID-19 caused by the Novel Coronavirus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

For COVID-19 testing, there are different kinds of tests available; while tests like RT-PCR (Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction), TrueNAT test directly for the virus, rapid antibody test checks for the presence of antibodies in the blood. To understand what are antibodies, why is it important to check for it and how is it done, NDTV speaks to experts.

Also Read: Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: Different Types Of Tests For COVID-19 And Their Efficacy

What Is An Antibody Test And How Is It Done?

Antibody test, also known as a serology test determines whether the human body had contracted COVID-19 in the past and now has antibodies to fight against the virus. It examines if an individual’s immune system – body’s defence against illness – has responded to the infection.

Antibody test is not a COVID-19 diagnostic test. It is typically done to see if someone has been exposed to the virus and checks the presence of these antibodies. In the case of COVID-19, over 98 per cent of patients develop antibodies, Dr Rajesh Parikh, Director Medical Research and Neuropsychiatrist at Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre.

Also Read: Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Is Pool Testing And Can It Expedite COVID-19 Detection In The Country?

Antibody test is like a regular blood test under which a sample is collected through a finger prick. The test is simpler and quicker when compared to COVID-19 diagnosis test – RT-PCR or TrueNAT. The test costs around Rs. 500 and since the interpretation of the test is easy and doesn’t require highly specialised machinery and staff, the result comes within half an hour.

What Are Antibodies?

Antibodies are proteins produced by a human body and used by the immune system to identify and neutralise foreign objects such as bacteria and viruses. Explaining the term in detail, Dr Mugdha Tapdiya, Senior Consultant, Internal Medicine at Fortis Hospital in Vasant Kunj said,

Antibodies are the immune response that our body develops against any infection. After contracting the COVID-19 infection, it takes one to three weeks for antibodies to develop. There are two kinds of antibodies – IgM (Immunoglobulin M) and IgG (Immunoglobulin G).

In the first week of contracting the virus, the antibody can give false negatives so it’s suggested to undergo the test only after eight days of getting infected or even later.

Also Read: Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Are The Four Types Of Vaccines Being Worked On To Fight Coronavirus?

What Is The Role Of Two Different Antibodies?

While IgM develops in an early phase of the infection, IgG antibodies are more likely to show up later – when an individual has recovered from the infection.

IgM is the initial response of the body to any infection. Typically, in the case of COVID-19, IgM will start getting positive after the first week of contracting the virus. Over time that is after three weeks of contracting the virus, the IgG which is the later response to any infection starts turning positive. IgM tells us that an individual has been exposed and he/she is either entering early immune phase or established immune phase, said Dr Ravindra Mehta, Chief of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine at Apollo Hospitals in Bengaluru.

IgM disappears after six weeks whereas IgG stays for a longer period of time. However, as of now, it’s not clear for how long IgG gives immunity. Also, developing these antibodies doesn’t mean an individual has developed long term immunity against the COVID-19 and cannot contract the virus again. There IS not enough evidence to prove how long the immunity will last.

How Specific And Sensitive Is Antibody Test?

There are two important markers of the value of a test – sensitivity and specificity. Sensitivity is the ability of a test to correctly identify those affected with the disease and not give false negatives. The more sensitive a test is, fewer false negatives will turn up. On the other hand, specificity is to identify those without the disease and not declare false positives, explained Dr Rajesh Parikh.

The antibody test lacks sensitivity but is highly specific. According to Dr Mugdha Tapdiya, while the sensitivity rate is 60 per cent to 70 per cent, specificity is better and is around 80 per cent to 85 per cent.

Also Read: Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Is A Coronavirus And COVID-19?

Why Are States Doing Antibody Test?

Clearly antibody test is not a COVID-19 diagnosis test so why are states across India procuring rapid antibody test kits and conducting the test? Explaining the same, Dr Mugdha Tapdiya said,

It was being done to check whether there has been a community transmission of Coronavirus or not. We cannot be doing RT-PCR tests in a large population as it requires certain expertise to collect samples and it’s a long process. So for the surveillance of the population, the antibody test is good.

What Are The Pros And Cons Of Antibody Test?

The three basic pros are the test is simple, quick, and cheap. Along with this, the other advantage is for healthcare workers who are fighting the battle against COVID-19 from the frontline. Explaining the benefit, Dr Mugdha Tapdiya said,

We are having a shortage of healthcare workers in states due to a high rate of COVID-19 infection. Once an individual contracts the virus, he/she has to remain in isolation for two to three weeks or maybe more because the healing period is long. With antibody test, we can actually test if they are immune. If they have had these antibodies, we can probably send them to work with all the precautions.

Also Read: Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Is A Pulse Oximeter And Why Is It Becoming A Tool Against COVID-19?

On the negative side, the low sensitivity rate which means the test can give false negatives while checking for antibodies is the disadvantage of the test.

What Is The Role Of Antibody Test In Convalescent Plasma Therapy?

The importance comes in convalescent plasma therapy (CPT) in which antibodies from the blood of a recovered patient are taken and administered into a critically ill patient of COVID-19. To undertake CPT, you need to check whether or not the COVID-19 recovered patient has developed antibodies against the virus, said Dr Rajesh Parikh.

World

26,58,63,058Cases
22,65,37,591Active
3,40,69,608Recovered
52,55,859Deaths
Coronavirus has spread to 196 countries. The total confirmed cases worldwide are 26,58,63,058 and 52,55,859 have died; 22,65,37,591 are active cases and 3,40,69,608 have recovered as on December 6, 2021 at 5:12 am.

India

3,46,41,561 8,306Cases
98,416739Active
3,40,69,608 8,834Recovered
4,73,537 211Deaths
In India, there are 3,46,41,561 confirmed cases including 4,73,537 deaths. The number of active cases is 98,416 and 3,40,69,608 have recovered as on December 6, 2021 at 2:30 am.

State Details

State Cases Active Recovered Deaths
Maharashtra

66,38,778 707

10,826 23

64,86,782 677

1,41,170 7

Kerala

51,65,921 4,450

44,110 317

50,80,211 4,606

41,600 161

Karnataka

29,98,099 456

7,161 120

29,52,708 330

38,230 6

Tamil Nadu

27,30,516 724

8,041 29

26,85,946 743

36,529 10

Andhra Pradesh

20,73,730 154

2,122 27

20,57,156 177

14,452 4

Uttar Pradesh

17,10,475 24

134 18

16,87,430 6

22,911

West Bengal

16,19,257 620

7,639 17

15,92,074 627

19,544 10

Delhi

14,41,358 63

370 48

14,15,890 15

25,098

Odisha

10,50,249 189

2,154 25

10,39,673 212

8,422 2

Chhattisgarh

10,06,967 25

330 4

9,93,044 21

13,593

Rajasthan

9,54,891 17

221 8

9,45,715 9

8,955

Gujarat

8,27,707 48

349 23

8,17,263 24

10,095 1

Madhya Pradesh

7,93,241 9

133 9

7,82,580 18

10,528

Haryana

7,71,819 22

185 5

7,61,580 17

10,054

Bihar

7,26,237 6

26 4

7,14,121 2

12,090

Telangana

6,76,943 156

3,787 8

6,69,157 147

3,999 1

Assam

6,17,576 101

2,490 61

6,08,966 158

6,120 4

Punjab

6,03,488 37

361 14

5,86,519 23

16,608

Jharkhand

3,49,342 25

127 12

3,44,074 13

5,141

Uttarakhand

3,44,353 8

174 1

3,36,768 7

7,411

Jammu And Kashmir

3,37,807 161

1,706 25

3,31,620 184

4,481 2

Himachal Pradesh

2,27,518 35

755 45

2,22,911 80

3,852

Goa

1,79,174 49

412 18

1,75,375 31

3,387

Mizoram

1,36,454 92

3,101 454

1,32,846 544

507 2

Puducherry

1,29,085 29

280 14

1,26,930 43

1,875

Manipur

1,25,360 32

353 9

1,23,025 40

1,982 1

Tripura

84,858 5

90 1

83,943 6

825

Meghalaya

84,583 9

244 2

82,864 11

1,475

Chandigarh

65,488 7

58 2

64,610 9

820

Arunachal Pradesh

55,293 5

36 4

54,977 1

280

Sikkim

32,369 10

215 2

31,749 8

405

Nagaland

32,136

117 9

31,320 9

699

Ladakh

21,714 31

295 3

21,204 34

215

Dadra And Nagar Haveli

10,683

0 0

10,679

4

Lakshadweep

10,404

10 0

10,343

51

Andaman And Nicobar Islands

7,688

4 2

7,555 2

129

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