Opinion: Food Systems – Innocent Victim Or Inadvertent Instigator Of Pandemics?

Opinion: Food Systems – Innocent Victim Or Inadvertent Instigator Of Pandemics?

Food was one of the the biggest worries during the lockdown but why? Are our food systems inefficient or could this be averted or minimized by stronger, more robust food systems? Dr Shweta Khandelwal answers this and many more such questions
Blogs, National Nutrition Month, Swasth India
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Food Systems: Innocent Victim Or Inadvertent Instigator Of Pandemics?COVID 19 laid open the gross inadequacies in our food system
Highlights
  • In India, 23% of women and 20% of men age 15-49 are undernourished: NFHS-4
  • 36 per cent of children under five years of age are underweight: NFHS-4
  • Food is responsible for approximately 26% of global greenhouse gas emission

New Delhi: Food was the biggest worry during the lockdown for everyone- those who could afford were anxious about safe access and delivery of food items while for some, getting two meals a day was a big deal. While some were sharing recipes, cooking videos, others were scraping the pots to get any food in their hungry stomachs. Of course, the governments recognized this early on and announced several packages, organized mass feedings, provided access to subsidised or free meals. Even personal and institutional philanthropy helped many to survive this dark period. But a big question is why did we not plan for rainy days like this beforehand? Why was there so much chaos and unrest over a basic requirement that is food? Are our food systems inefficient or could this be averted or minimized by stronger, more robust food systems? Simply focusing on farm to fork did not help much when pandemics like COVID 19 struck. In fact, they merely laid open the gross inadequacies in our food system. And if we do not tighten our leaky cups now, we will run out of subsidies and free meals when the next one comes knocking our doors. I am not a pessimist; thus saying negative things pain me but my straightforwardness in this piece is only to express my concern about a disjointed siloed approach to fixing India’s hunger and malnourishment problems in both the short and long term. Before we move further, please note that in simple words the food system refers to a complex web of activities involving the production, processing, transport, and consumption.

Food Systems: Innocent Victim Or Inadvertent Instigator Of Pandemics?
During COVID-19 induced lockdown, various non-governmental organisations stepped up to distribute food

Also Read: COVID-19 Warriors: Indian Cricket Fans Across 6 Countries Join Hands To Distribute Food To 400 Needy Families In Mumbai

The unprecedented social, economic crisis triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic poses grave risks to the nutritional status and survival of young children especially in low-income and middle-income countries like India. India’s poor nutrition statistics before COVID were already abysmal – 23 per cent women and 20 per cent of men age 15-49 are undernourished and 36 per cent children under five years of age are underweight (NFHS-4); 38 per cent children under five years of age are stunted (NFHS-4); 21 per cent children under five years of age are wasted (NFHS-4); 2 per cent preschool children (below 5 years of age) are overweight and obese (CNNS, 2019).

Food Systems: Innocent Victim Or Inadvertent Instigator Of Pandemics?
The status of infant and under-five mortality rate in India

21 per cent women and 19 per cent men are overweight and obese (NFHS-4); and several million are grappling with hidden hunger i.e. multiple micronutrient deficiencies. And now post COVID, food insecurity globally will double – from the current 135 million, the projections show 265 million food insecure people by end of 2020. This will also translate into additional estimated 6·7 million wasted children in 2020 (57.6 per cent of these in South Asia alone).

Food Systems: Innocent Victim Or Inadvertent Instigator Of Pandemics?
Nutritional status of adults in India

Also Read: Even Though India Sees Improvement In Most Health Indicators, Is The Vision Of Swasth India Still A Distant Dream? 

The causes and consequences of nutritional change should be of interest to economists and policymakers for two main reasons. The first is health, through which nutrition affects education, labor productivity and human capital formation. Poor diet quality has long been the greatest avoidable cause of death and disability, first through the increased vulnerability to poor growth and infectious diseases especially in childhood and then through cardio-metabolic or other non-communicable diseases in later life. All forms of malnutrition coexist at various levels, and are linked to a wide range of health disparities.

The second set of concerns about human nutrition are environmental, given that food production is the largest single contributor to natural resource use, pollution and especially carbon emissions. Climate change and other environmental factors affect food supplies, through both long-term trends and more frequent extremes such as droughts and floods. In the last decade, multiple calls for grand-scale food systems transformation to improve diets and nutrition emerged globally. And now, planetary health has also come to the forefront. Making this transformation is not so easy with the challenges food systems face. With climate disruption, worsening food insecurity and malnutrition, systemic inequities, and now, the COVID-19 pandemic, can there be some respite via food systems? There is overwhelming global evidence that atmospheric, geologic, hydrologic, biospheric and other earth system processes are now altered by humans. As the IPCC 2018 puts it, “The challenge of avoiding catastrophic climate breakdown requires rapid, far-reaching and unprecedented changes in all aspects of society.” As Jessica Fanzo puts it, “Food systems are both victims and instigators of climate change.” Economically poor households are likely to experience a disproportionate burden of the impacts of climate change.

Also Read: Coronavirus Outbreak: Door-step Delivery Of Ration Is The Way Forward To Feed The Hungry And Maintain Social Distancing In Delhi

Climate change is a threat to food security. Climate change is projected to have a net adverse impact on the quality and quantity of crop yields. The ensuing loss of biodiversity and water stress will impact the ability to grow food. Extreme weather events such as heat waves, droughts, and flooding and cold spells can lead to devastating crop failures of major crops such as wheat, maize, soybean and rice. The risk of extreme weather events co-occurring at multiple cropping locations globally is increasing because of climate change. Food safety risks will change with a warmer world. Risk maps for aflatoxin contamination (aflatoxins are genotoxic, carcinogenic and immunosuppressive substances and cause both acute and chronic toxicity) in maize at harvest would reduce the availability of maize for both food and particularly feed uses. Contaminated crops will have a reduced economic value, as they need to be diverted to other uses such as biofuel generation. This could lead to an end of maize production in current areas as being uneconomical. In addition, the enlargement of aflatoxin risk zones could increase human and animal population chronic exposures to these mycotoxins.

Food is responsible for approximately 26 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE). Of this, livestock and fisheries account for 31  per cent of food emissions; Crop production accounts for 27 per cent of food emissions; Land use accounts for 24% of food emissions; Supply chains account for 18 per cent of food emissions. The environmental stress of food production will continue in order to meet dietary demands. Fifty percent of the world’s crop calories currently come from wheat, rice and maize. If we add sugar, barley, soy, palm and potatoes, it rises to ~76 per cent. The recent EAT Lancet Commission calls for grand transformations to food production systems but we know that our diets have become more similar (losing diet diversity) in the last 50 years. In fact, studies show a huge discrepancy in what is proposed/recommended for eating versus what is produced. Globally, the agricultural system overproduces grains, fats, and sugars while production of fruits and vegetables (FVs) and protein is not sufficient to meet the nutritional needs of the current population eg. 50 per cent more FVs needed as against 11 per cent production; Milk and milk products also need to be doubled in production to match consumption recommendations. Cereals needed are ~20 per cent but we produce more than 60 per cent (including sugar).

Food Systems: Innocent Victim Or Inadvertent Instigator Of Pandemics?
The food we should eat vs what we produce

Also Read: National Nutrition Month: ‘The Mantra Is To Add As Many Colours Of Food As Possible In Your Diet,’ Says Expert

Correcting this imbalance could reduce the amount of arable land used by agriculture by 51 million hectare (ha) and increase GHGE. Scientists propose that the only way to eat a nutritionally balanced diet, save land and reduce GHGE is to consume and produce more FVs as well as transition to diets higher in plant-based protein. Such a move will help protect habitats and help meet the Sustainable Development Goals.

Another important issue is that the reference Lancet-EAT diet is unaffordable for 1.6 billion people. Food prices can also lead to social unrest. Animal source foods are even more expensive. Studies show that higher relative caloric prices for food predict lower consumption among children for 7 of 9 food groups. Poor food choices fuel malnutrition eg. 1-SD increase in milk prices was associated with a 2.8 percentage point increase in the stunting prevalence. Similarly, a 1-SD increase in soft drink prices was associated with a reduction in the overweight prevalence of∼3.6 percentage points.

Also Read: ‘Lack Of Nutrition During The First 1000 Days Of Life Can Impact Brain Development’, Says Expert

The solutions have to be R-I-G-H-T of course!

Research And Evidence

This has always been my first key point when it comes to any positive transformation. We need sustainable solutions emerging from and backed by high-quality rigorous research. Investment in research and good education is vital for a country’s growth and development. We will need a menu of solutions: changes to diets; food waste reduction; improvements in agricultural efficiency; and technologies that make low-carbon food alternatives scalable and affordable.

Also Read: ‘Lack Of Nutrition During The First 1000 Days Of Life Can Impact Brain Development’, Says Expert

Information Technology

All forms of modern communication, savvy technologies, innovation in big data and global cooperation etc are set to drive the processes faster and more efficiently. We need state of the art technologies to propel our growth to fight multiple forms of malnutrition timely and fix inefficiencies. Eg recently announced National digital health mission by Govt of India, use of CAS by MWCD, artificial intelligence in healthcare etc.

Galvanize Action By Communities

Jan Andolan needs to be a key part of this vision. In fact, children and youth should drive this – be it from schools, local communities, neighborhoods, workplaces etc. We have heard senior leadership often urging people to ‘reform to transform’. Motivating others to reduce food wastage, save water, use clean and green resources requires investment in educating masses by using social media and technology. Using awareness, health and nutrition education, all stakeholders must rally call-to-action and promote policy advocacy as well as behavioural change to improve outcomes.

Also Read: National Nutrition Month: Nutritional Requirements Of A Baby From 0-2 Years

Harmonize And Harness Power

Harmonize and harness power of multisectoral joint vision, accountability and action. To address the multiple forms of malnutrition, synergistic policies and programs must operate via multiple sectors simultaneously, including agriculture, trade, environment, health, water and sanitation, education, social protection, and gender. Eg. While the environment policy should be sensitive about food systems, the Poshan Abhiyaan must integrate ways to obtain and deliver nutritious solutions in an equitable climate friendly way. Policies, politics and political economies need to agree to shared vision and concerted action. Due to the urgency of climate change issues, environment considerations must be a part of all nutrition and health related discussions and decisions.

Also Read: Five Must-Have Nutrients For A Pregnant Woman

Timely Action

Timely action to tighten the processes and fix weak policies for a healthy sustainable affordable food system for all – let no conflict of interest sway this vision. Safe sustainable food must be the priority. We need to build capacity of front line workers, program managers, healthcare and allied services personnel to contribute in achieving a robust food system.

As a committed public health nutrition professional, I was and am even more convinced that the solutions to fight malnutrition overall and in challenging times like this COVID 19, will emerge from a strong, resilient, equitable and climate friendly food system. Accelerators to help achieve healthy and sustainable diets, productive optimized food systems and reduced waste are critical pieces to transform and attain sustainable food systems. So this nutrition month I am going all out to urge attention and resources to strengthen food systems. Food systems should help promote optimal human health, ensure future sustainable planetary health, and provide equitable and fair livelihoods of food system actors. Delivering the triple wins (in health, economy and environment) will require collective commitment to fight worsening, inequitable food insecurity and making the RIGHT choices about food contingent on resilient food systems. I am in, are you?

Also Read: Blog: Akshaya Patra Deploys Technology To Serve 1.8 Million Children Midday Meals

Food Systems: Innocent Victim Or Inadvertent Instigator Of Pandemics?

 

 

Dr Shweta Khandelwal is Head, Nutrition Research and Additional Professor, Public Health Foundation of India

 

Disclaimer: The opinions expressed within this article are the personal opinions of the author. The facts and opinions appearing in the article do not reflect the views of NDTV and NDTV does not assume any responsibility or liability for the same.

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World

3,04,91,096Cases
87,62,381Active
2,07,76,975Recovered
9,51,740Deaths
Coronavirus has spread to 188 countries. The total confirmed cases worldwide are 3,04,91,096 and 9,51,740 have died; 87,62,381 are active cases and 2,07,76,975 have recovered as on September 19, 2020 at 3:48 am.

India

53,08,014 93337Cases
10,13,964 -3790Active
42,08,431 95880Recovered
85,619 1247Deaths
In India, there are 53,08,014 confirmed cases including 85,619 deaths. The number of active cases is 10,13,964 and 42,08,431 have recovered as on September 19, 2020 at 2:30 am.

State & District Details

State Cases Active Recovered Deaths
DistrictCases
Akola757
Aurangabad1974
Dhule228
Jalgaon1039
Mumbai45478
Mumbai Suburban5363
Nagpur692
Nashik1575
Palghar1421
Pune9920
Satara629
Solapur1291
Thane13660
Yavatmal150
Ahmednagar190
Amravati291
Beed54
Bhandara41
Buldhana88
Chandrapur32
Hingoli208
Jalna201
Kolhapur646
Latur139
Nanded176
Nandurbar42
Parbhani78
Raigad1462
Ratnagiri350
Sangli145
Gadchiroli42
gondia69
Osmanabad125
Sindhudurg114
Wardha11
Washim13

1167496 21656

301273

834432 22078

31791 440

DistrictCases
Chittoor319
Guntur511
Krishna557
Kurnool795
Sri Potti Sriramulu Nell*296
Anantapur428
East Godavari356
Prakasam104
Srikakulam183
Visakhapatnam103
West Godavari199
Y.S.R.205
Vizianagaram23

609558 8096

84423

519891 11803

5244 67

DistrictCases
Bengaluru Rural40
Bengaluru Urban529
Mysuru107
Bagalkote103
Ballari60
Belagavi337
Bidar219
Chikkaballapura149
Dakshina Kannada179
Dharwad61
Gadag45
Kalaburagi669
Mandya346
Tumakuru36
Uttara Kannada95
Vijayapura201
Chamarajanagara0
Chikkamagaluru19
Chitradurga14
Davangere204
Hassan205
Haveri24
Kodagu4
Kolar29
Koppal5
Raichur369
Ramanagara3
Shivamogga67
Udupi1176
Yadgir538

502982 8626

101148

394026 10949

7808 179

DistrictCases
North Goa57
South Goa69

27379 596

5730 118

21314 470

335 8

DistrictCases
Chengalpattu1314
Chennai23324
Kanchipuram503
Madurai322
Namakkal83
Ranipet133
Thanjavur130
Thiruvallur774
Thiruvarur67
Tiruppur116
Vellore71
Virudhunagar185
Ariyalur444
Coimbatore188
Cuddalore477
Dharmapuri15
Dindigul175
Erode75
Kallakurichi324
Kanniyakumari110
Karur88
Nagapattinam99
Perambalur133
Pudukkottai53
Ramanathapuram119
Salem258
Sivaganga46
Tenkasi103
The Nilgiris17
Theni129
Tiruchirappalli119
Tirunelveli433
Tirupathur45
Tiruvannamalai496
Tuticorin333
Villupuram509
Krishnagiri43

530908 5488

46506

475717 5525

8685 67

DistrictCases
Kannur357
Kottayam73
Alappuzha76
Idukki40
Kasaragod333
Kollam118
Kozhikode90
Malappuram119
Palakkad224
Pathanamthitta98
Thiruvananthapuram104
Thrissur106
Ernakulam60
Wayanad36

126381 4167

35795 1415

90085 2740

501 12

DistrictCases
Raipur46
Korba100
Balod41
Baloda Bazar85
Balrampur17
Bastar2
Bemetara21
Bijapur2
Bilaspur100
Dantewada0
Dhamtari6
Durg31
Gariyaband10
Janjgir-Champa56
Jashpur77
Kabirdham52
Kanker19
Kondagaon0
Korea39
Mahasamund54
Mungeli87
Narayanpur0
Raigarh47
Rajnandgaon52
Sukma0
Surajpur9
Surguja14

81617 3842

36580 544

44392 3281

645 17

DistrictCases
Hyderabad2475
MedchalMalkajgiri75
Ranga Reddy183
Suryapet87
Vikarabad40
Warangal Urban32
Adilabad22
Jagitial77
Jangoan8
Jayashankar Bhupalapally9
Jogulamba Gadwal40
Kamareddy11
Karimnagar17
Khammam26
Kumuram Bheem Asifabad8
Mahabubnagar30
Mancherial43
Medak11
Nalgonda33
Narayanpet3
Nirmal21
Nizamabad76
RajannaSircilla16
Sangareddy26
Bhadradri Kothagudem5
Mahabubabad10
Mulugu3
Nagarkurnool8
Peddapalli5
Siddipet7
Wanaparthy1
Warangal Rural4
YadadriBhuvanagiri40

169169 2123

30636

137508 2151

1025 9

DistrictCases
Baleshwar190
Bhadrak137
Jajapur322
Dhenkanal36
Kalahandi33
Kendrapara164
Khordha238
Koraput16
Sundargarh102
Anugul26
Balangir129
Bargarh16
Boudh34
Cuttack155
Deogarh33
Gajapati61
Ganjam581
Jagatsinghapur91
Jharsuguda8
Kandhamal28
Kendujhar34
Malkangiri20
Mayurbhanj73
Nabarangpur2
Nayagarh86
Nuapada69
Puri103
Rayagada2
Sambalpur16
Sonepur29

171341 4180

33092 66

137567 4101

682 13

DistrictCases
Barwani60
Bhopal1880
Dewas140
Dhar132
East Nimar266
Gwalior211
Indore3839
Jabalpur276
Ujjain799
Agar Malwa15
Alirajpur3
Betul35
Burhanpur351
Chhindwara16
Dindori29
Harda4
Hoshangabad37
Khargone196
Mandsaur112
Morena109
Raisen71
Ratlam51
Sagar228
Shajapur39
Shandol14
Sheopur26
Tikamgarh18
Vidisha37
Anuppur22
Ashoknagar13
Balaghat9
Bhind87
Chhatarpur35
Damoh26
Datia12
Guna8
Jhabua14
Katni3
Mandla15
Narsinghpur17
Neemuch319
Niwari0
Panna20
Rajgarh31
Rewa39
Satna24
Sehore12
Seoni2
Shivpuri15
Sidhi17
Singrauli13
Umaria10

100458 2552

21605

76952 2554

1901 24

DistrictCases
Ahmadabad17125
Anand107
Arvalli134
Banas Kantha147
Bhavnagar146
Gandhinagar410
PanchMahals107
Surat2311
Vadodara1555
Bharuch56
Botad55
Chhotaudepur37
Dang5
Dohad43
GirSomnath45
Jamnagar63
Kachchh99
Kheda98
Mahesana159
Mahisagar125
Narmada25
Naysari35
Patan105
Rajkot135
SabarKantha101
Surendranagar55
Tapi6
Valsad47
Amreli16
DevbhumiDwarka22
Junagadh31
Morbi4
Porbandar11

120336 1410

16076 101

100974 1293

3286 16

DistrictCases
Ajmer379
Banswara91
Bharatpur563
Jaipur2177
Jhalawar329
Jodhpur1748
Kota503
Nagaur500
Alwar90
Barmer34
Bhilwara250
Bikaner112
Chittorgarh188
Churu81
Dausa61
Dholpur60
Dungarpur374
Hanumangarh31
Jaisalmer53
Jhunjhunu64
Karauli17
Pali352
Rajsamand140
SawaiMadhopur26
Sikar231
Tonk171
Udaipur724
Baran59
Bundi5
Ganganagar8
Jalore164
Pratapgarh14
Sirohi130

111290 1817

17717 222

92265 1580

1308 15

DistrictCases
Faridabad867
Sonipat404
Ambala93
Bhiwani60
CharkiDadri43
Fatehabad38
Gurugram2950
Hisar98
Jhajjar114
Jind38
Kaithal48
Karnal104
Kurukshetra55
Nuh68
Palwal120
Panchkula39
Panipat78
Rohtak145
Sirsa50
Yamunanagar19
Mahendragarh47
Rewari56

106261 2488

21291 277

83878 2188

1092 23

DistrictCases
Agra933
Aligarh215
Amroha80
Bareilly17
Bijnor157
Bulandshahr166
Firozabad190
Gautam Buddha Nagar1119
Kanpur Nagar286
Lucknow386
Mathura129
Meerut504
Moradabad252
Muzaffarnagar117
Rae Bareli78
Rampur203
Saharanpur298
Sant Kabeer Nagar132
Varanasi243
Auraiya37
Ayodhya120
Azamgarh138
Baghpat68
Bahraich73
Balrampur49
Banda27
Basti214
Bhadohi60
Budaun23
Etah52
Etawah46
Ghaziabad794
Ghazipur159
Gonda59
Gorakhpur166
Hapur225
Hardoi49
Jalaun41
Jaunpur194
Jhansi41
Kannauj69
Kasganj16
Kaushambi6
Mainpuri46
Mau48
Mirzapur22
Pilibhit15
Pratapgarh15
Prayagraj30
Sambhal116
Shamli40
Shravasti23
Sitapur32
Sultanpur97
Unnao42
Ambedkar Nagar92
Amethi206
Ballia60
Barabanki168
Chandauli38
Chitrakoot4
Deoria143
Farrukhabad36
Fatehpur3
Hamirpur3
Hathras43
Kanpur Dehat4
Kheri72
Kushi Nagar67
Lalitpur3
Maharajganj85
Mahoba3
Shahjahanpur25
Siddharth Nagar159
Sonbhadra10

342788 6494

67825

270094 6806

4869 98

DistrictCases
Central4817
East2472
New Delhi3405
North3059
North East1914
North West5463
Shahdara1580
South2329
South East2446
South West2391
West4768

238828 4127

32250 529

201671 3568

4907 30

DistrictCases
Dhubri30
Goalpara19
Marigaon50
Baksa14
Barpeta28
Biswanath16
Bongaigaon12
Cachar80
Charaideo29
Chirang6
Darrang20
Dhemaji47
Dibrugarh61
Dima Hasao86
Golaghat203
Hailakandi57
Hojai89
Jorhat24
Kamrup42
Kamrup Metro276
KarbiAnglong13
Karimganj85
Kokrajhar37
Lakhimpur57
Majuli2
Nagaon143
Nalbari23
Sivasagar20
Sonitpur27
South SalmaraMancachar4
Tinsukia84
Udalguri28
West KarbiAnglong5

152858 2509

28631 423

123687 2074

540 12

DistrictCases
East District3
North District0
South District3
West District0

2303 29

422

1857 68

24 2

DistrictCases
Buxar134
Gaya115
Munger188
Patna279
Rohtas256
Arwal52
Aurangabad75
Banka134
Begusarai243
Bhagalpur266
Bhojpur103
Darbhanga143
Gopalganj123
Jehanabad178
Kaimur (bhabua)105
Lakhisarai72
Madhepura82
Madhubani199
Nalanda123
Nawada122
PurbiChamparan138
Purnia135
Saran101
Siwan139
Vaishali87
Araria68
Jamui47
Katihar175
Khagaria253
Kishanganj75
Muzaffarpur96
Pashchim Champaran57
Saharsa88
Samastipur139
Sheikhpura118
Sheohar20
Sitamarhi73
Supaul87

165218 1167

12609

151750 1710

859 4

DistrictCases
24 Paraganas North1031
24 Paraganas South281
Darjeeling97
Howrah1435
Jalpaiguri88
Kalimpong18
Kolkata2777
Maldah235
Medinipur East153
Medinipur West159
Hooghly604
Murshidabad125
Nadia139
Paschim Bardhaman70
Purba Bardhaman130
Alipurduar39
Bankura116
Birbhum206
Coochbehar210
Dinajpur Dakshin50
Dinajpur Uttar216
Jhargram9
Purulia66

218772 3192

24509 173

190021 2960

4242 59

DistrictCases
South Andamans33
Nicobars1
North And Middle Andaman1

3631 27

165

3414 36

52

DistrictCases
Pondicherry111
Karaikal2
Mahe4
Yanam0

21913 485

4736

16715 462

462 31

DistrictCases
Anjaw0
Changlang31
Dibang Valley0
East Kameng0
East Siang1
Kamle0
KraDaadi0
KurungKumey0
Leparada0
Lohit3
Longding0
Lower Dibang Valley0
Lower Siang0
Lower Subansiri0
Namsai2
PakkeKessang1
Papum Pare8
Shi Yomi0
Siang0
Tawang1
Tirap0
Upper Siang1
Upper Subansiri0
West Kameng0
West Siang1

7005 154

1886 15

5106 139

13

DistrictCases
Dimapur20
Kiphire3
Kohima7
Longleng0
Mokokchung0
Mon8
Peren2
Phek1
Tuensang3
Wokha0
Zunheboto0

5357 51

1213 20

4129 31

15

DistrictCases
Dadra And Nagar Haveli20

2859 28

218

2639 31

2

DistrictCases
Ranchi148
Bokaro16
Deoghar5
Dhanbad32
Garhwa80
Giridih19
Hazaribagh110
Jamtara2
Koderma58
Simdega48
Chatra1
Dumka5
East Singhbum170
Godda2
Gumla28
Khunti10
Latehar14
Lohardaga8
Pakur4
Palamu27
Ramgarh75
Sahebganj0
SaraikelaKharsawan20
West Singhbhum21

68578 1478

13924 221

54052 1245

602 12

DistrictCases
Gomati74
North Tripura14
Dhalai196
Khowai24
Sepahijala174
South Tripura53
Unakoti49
West Tripura45

21484 535

7107

14142 583

235 7

DistrictCases
Kargil77
LehLadakh43

3635 59

987 15

2600 42

48 2

DistrictCases
Anantnag395
Bandipora175
Shopian255
Srinagar300
Baramulla271
Budgam110
Ganderbal37
Jammu138
Kathua53
Kulgam295
Kupwara231
Rajouri39
Ramban151
Reasi26
Samba25
Udhampur155
Mirpur0
Muzaffarabad0
Doda27
Kishtwar10
Poonch35
Pulwama108

61041 1330

20770 531

39305 784

966 15

DistrictCases
Chamba29
Hamirpur117
Kangra105
Sirmaur11
Solan32
Una41
Bilaspur21
Kinnaur2
Kullu4
Lahaul And Spiti0
Mandi21
Shimla10

11622 432

4430 284

7081 135

111 13

DistrictCases
Jalandhar297
Ludhiana293
Patiala132
Amritsar485
Barnala25
Faridkot74
Firozepur50
Gurdaspur154
Hoshiarpur140
Kapurthala44
Mansa31
Moga65
Pathankot86
S.A.S Nagar137
Sangrur107
Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar (Nawanshahr)99
Sri Muktsar Sahib71
Tarn Taran163
Bathinda60
Fatehgarh Sahib57
Fazilka53
Rupnagar (Ropar)74

92833 2801

21662 94

68463 2645

2708 62

DistrictCases
Haridwar94
Dehradun370
Nainital323
Almora71
Bageshwar31
Chamoli36
Champawat45
PauriGarhwal36
Pithoragarh43
Rudraprayag30
Tehri Garhwal110
Udam Singh Nagar83
Uttar Kashi24

38007 868

11293

26250 1285

464 4

DistrictCases
Bishnupur7
Chandel5
Churachandpur32
Imphal East10
Imphal West21
Jiribam3
Kakching2
Kamjong5
Kangpokpi26
Noney1
Pherzawl3
Senapati6
Tamenglong2
Tengnoupal9
Thoubal18
Ukhrul4

8607 177

1926 85

6629 91

52 1

DistrictCases
Chandigarh313

9506 250

2978

6415 353

113 4

DistrictCases
East Khasi Hills22
East Garo Hills0
East Jaintia Hills0
North Garo Hills1
Ribhoi0
South Garo Hills0
South West Garo Hills4
South West Khasi Hills0
West Garo Hills5
West Jaintia Hills1
West Khasi Hills1

4445 89

1976

2437 95

32 1

DistrictCases
Aizawl10
Champhai0
Hnahthial0
Khawzawl0
Kolasib11
Lawngtlai2
Lunglei2
Mamit8
Saiha0
Saitual1
Serchhip0

1548 14

575

973 24

0

DistrictCases
Lakshadweep District0

0

0

0

0

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