POSHAN Maah 2020: Three Different Ways Of Food Fortification Explained

POSHAN Maah 2020: Three Different Ways Of Food Fortification Explained

The process of including key vitamins and minerals such as iron, iodine, zinc, vitamins A and D to staple food items like rice, wheat, oil, milk, and salt is called food fortification
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POSHAN Maah 2020: Three Different Ways Of Food Fortification ExplainedNutrition Month: Lack of important vitamins and minerals causes micronutrient-related malnutrition
Highlights
  • A human body needs both macro and micro nutrients
  • Fortified food aids in consumption of micro nutrients
  • The food can be fortified either while production or cooking

New Delhi: In 1962 the Government of India initiated the National Goitre Control Program (NGCP) and mandated the use of iodized salt to eliminate goitre in the country. According to FSSAI (Food Safety And Standards Authority Of India), human body requires 150 micrograms of iodine, an essential micronutrient, every day. But, our diet does not contain sufficient amount of iodine hence, the government mandated consumption of iodised salt or fortified salt, which refers to addition of iodine in regular salt without changing its taste or texture.

Since then the government has been trying to implement food fortification on a large scale. Food fortification has also been identified as one of the key strategies to achieve the target of Kuposhan Mukt Bharat (Malnutrition Free India) by 2022.

Also Read: All About Food Fortification And How It Can Make India A Healthy Country

What Is Food Fortification?

The process of including key vitamins and minerals such as iron, iodine, zinc, vitamins A and D to staple food items like rice, wheat flour, oil, milk, and salt is called food fortification. The reason behind choosing staple items is to reach a larger population.

Why Is Food Fortification Required?

Food fortification is one of the ways to ensure the consumption of essential micronutrients. The vital micronutrients are added to improve the nutritional content which may or may not have been originally present in the food before processing or may have been lost during processing.

When we talk of nutrition security, we mandate the regular and appropriate inputs of macro nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, fats) and micro nutrients (vitamins and minerals). While macro nutrients are needed in larger quantities, the proportion of micro nutrients is very minuscule. But, the role of micro nutrients in ensuring nutrition security, and appropriate living and thriving is probably as much as macro nutrients if not more, explains Dr. Rajiv Tandon, Health Director, RTI, International India.

Also Read: Poshan Maah 2020: What Has Been The Impact Of COVID-19 Pandemic On India’s Malnutrition Targets

What Are The Different Ways Of Food Fortification?

There are three ways to improve the nutritional quality of staples by adding key micronutrients and these are:

Bio-fortification

Bio-fortification of staples simply means inculcating micro nutrients when the food is being grown. The process ensures availability of micro nutrients in the crop being sown. It includes the breeding and genetic modification of plants so as to improve their nutrient content and/or absorption. According to Dr. Tandon, though this is a good way to fortify food it is not easy. He says,

For bio-fortification you need to play with the genes of the plant and there are some people who are against the genetic modification of plants. However, scientists are working on bio-fortification of food and some countries have already started consuming such staples. Like, some countries have orange sweet potato which is actually a fortified and micronutrient rich version of regular sweet potato.

Also Read: National Nutrition Month: Benefits Of Eating Locally Produced Nutritious Foods At Complementary Feeding Stage

Orange sweet potato or the fortified sweet potato is a good source of Vitamin A which is essential for good vision, healthy immune system, and for the proper functioning of various organs including heart, and lungs.

Basanta Kumar Kar, a recipient of Global Nutrition Leadership Award, believes that the consumption of naturally bio-fortified food and food through conventional plant breeding is safe and which can be promoted through kitchen garden and linking these with MGNREGA (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act).

Also Read: Gujarat NGO Helps Distressed Families Grow Kitchen Gardens During COVID-19 Pandemic To Improve Their Nutritional Well-Being

Industrial Fortification

Industrial fortification involves adding micronutrients to staples such as flour, rice, cooking oils, sauces, and others while manufacturing. For example, spraying potassium iodate or potassium iodide solution on edible salt.

Similarly, rice fortification is done by adding Fortified Rice Kernels (FRK) to non-fortified or regular rice in a ratio of 1:100. Fortified Rice Kernels are manufactured by combining rice flour with required nutrients. The mixture is then made into rice-like grains that resemble the sheen, transparency, consistency and flavour of rice. Following this, FRK are added to the ordinary rice supply.

Also Read: Poshan Maah 2020: ‘Proper Nutrition Is Vital To Build A Prosperous Nation,’ Says Prime Minister Narendra Modi

Industrial fortification of rice has been practised for many years and even made part of government schemes like mid-day meal. To assess the benefits of fortified rice, PATH, an NGO that is working in the health sector, did a study in Karnataka for the year 2016-2018, where fortified rice was integrated in the school meal program. The introduction of fortified rice led to a reduction in underweight, stunting cases.

For the same period, parents reported that the frequency of child falling sick at least once in three months had significantly reduced, informed Ruchika Chugh Sachdeva, Deputy Director, Maternal, Newborn, Child Health & Nutrition – India, PATH.

Home Fortification

Home fortification is considered as the easiest form of including micro nutrients through iron sprinkles or powdered nutrients or tablets. The fortified food or micronutrients can be added either while cooking or eating food.

Also Read: National Nutrition Week 2020: How These Initiatives Are Helping India Eat Nutritious Food Amid Coronavirus Crisis

What Are The Benefits Of Food Fortification And Is It Scientifically Proven?

Food Fortification is a scientifically proven, cost-effective, scalable and sustainable global intervention that addresses the issue of micronutrient deficiencies, states FSSAI.

Explaining the benefits of fortified food, Mini Varghese, Country Director, Nutrition International, said,

Fortification can make frequently consumed foods or daily staples more nutritious without any change in the dietary habits of the consumers. The demand and consumption of staples like wheat flour, rice, milk, oil, salt and others usually remain uninterrupted in every scenario and they are consumed across the population – from low to high income groups. This makes food staples a great vehicle to add micronutrients to improve the nutritional status of the general population.

Also Read: National Nutrition Month: Uttar Pradesh Government And World Food Programme Join Hands To Provide Nutritious Take Home Ration

According to the studies done in the past, food fortification does help in addressing different forms of malnutrition and other diseases caused due to micro nutrient deficiency. In 2018-2019, PATH did a case-control study in Gujarat to understand the effectiveness of fortified rice. As part of the study, fortified rice was introduced into the mid-day meal program of 666 local schools of Ahmedabad.

The study showed significant improvement in haemoglobin levels among children and anaemia cases reduced by 10 per cent. Compared to the control group (non-fortified rice group), cognitive scores increased by 11.25 points among the children who consumed fortified rice, informed Ms Sachdeva.

Also Read: “Nutrition Is More Than food, More Than Hunger,” UNICEF India’s Arjan De Wagt Talks About The Impact Of COVID-19 On Poshan Abhiyan 

NDTV – Dettol Banega Swasth India campaign is an extension of the five-year-old Banega Swachh India initiative helmed by Campaign Ambassador Amitabh Bachchan. It aims to spread awareness about critical health issues facing the country. In wake of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the need for WASH (WaterSanitation and Hygiene) is reaffirmed as handwashing is one of the ways to prevent Coronavirus infection and other diseases. The campaign highlights the importance of nutrition and healthcare for women and children to prevent maternal and child mortality, fight malnutrition, stunting, wasting, anaemia and disease prevention through vaccines. Importance of programmes like Public Distribution System (PDS), Mid-day Meal Scheme, POSHAN Abhiyan and the role of Aganwadis and ASHA workers are also covered. Only a Swachh or clean India where toilets are used and open defecation free (ODF) status achieved as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2014, can eradicate diseases like diahorrea and become a Swasth or healthy India. The campaign will continue to cover issues like air pollutionwaste managementplastic banmanual scavenging and sanitation workers and menstrual hygiene

World

11,40,58,530Cases
4,71,23,393Active
6,44,05,027Recovered
25,30,110Deaths
Coronavirus has spread to 192 countries. The total confirmed cases worldwide are 11,40,58,530 and 25,30,110 have died; 4,71,23,393 are active cases and 6,44,05,027 have recovered as on March 1, 2021 at 3:36 am.

India

1,11,12,241 15510Cases
1,68,627 4116Active
1,07,86,457 11288Recovered
1,57,157 106Deaths
In India, there are 1,11,12,241 confirmed cases including 1,57,157 deaths. The number of active cases is 1,68,627 and 1,07,86,457 have recovered as on March 1, 2021 at 2:30 am.

State & District Details

State Cases Active Recovered Deaths
DistrictCases
Mumbai45,478
Thane13,660
Pune9,920
Mumbai Suburban5,363
Aurangabad1,974
Nashik1,575
Raigad1,462
Palghar1,421
Solapur1,291
Jalgaon1,039
Akola757
Nagpur692
Kolhapur646
Satara629
Ratnagiri350
Amravati291
Dhule228
Hingoli208
Jalna201
Ahmednagar190
Nanded176
Yavatmal150
Sangli145
Latur139
Osmanabad125
Sindhudurg114
Buldhana88
Parbhani78
gondia69
Beed54
Nandurbar42
Gadchiroli42
Bhandara41
Chandrapur32
Washim13
Wardha11

21,55,070 8,293

78,212 4,478

20,24,704 3,753

52,154 62

DistrictCases
Kannur357
Kasaragod333
Palakkad224
Malappuram119
Kollam118
Thrissur106
Thiruvananthapuram104
Pathanamthitta98
Kozhikode90
Alappuzha76
Kottayam73
Ernakulam60
Idukki40
Wayanad36

10,59,403 3,254

49,709 1,094

10,05,497 4,333

4,197 15

DistrictCases
Udupi1,176
Kalaburagi669
Yadgir538
Bengaluru Urban529
Raichur369
Mandya346
Belagavi337
Bidar219
Hassan205
Davangere204
Vijayapura201
Dakshina Kannada179
Chikkaballapura149
Mysuru107
Bagalkote103
Uttara Kannada95
Shivamogga67
Dharwad61
Ballari60
Gadag45
Bengaluru Rural40
Tumakuru36
Kolar29
Haveri24
Chikkamagaluru19
Chitradurga14
Koppal5
Kodagu4
Ramanagara3
Chamarajanagara0

9,51,251 521

5,823 166

9,33,097 350

12,331 5

DistrictCases
Kurnool795
Krishna557
Guntur511
Anantapur428
East Godavari356
Chittoor319
Sri Potti Sriramulu Nell*296
Y.S.R.205
West Godavari199
Srikakulam183
Prakasam104
Visakhapatnam103
Vizianagaram23

8,89,916 117

718 51

8,82,029 66

7,169

DistrictCases
Chennai23,324
Chengalpattu1,314
Thiruvallur774
Villupuram509
Kanchipuram503
Tiruvannamalai496
Cuddalore477
Ariyalur444
Tirunelveli433
Tuticorin333
Kallakurichi324
Madurai322
Salem258
Coimbatore188
Virudhunagar185
Dindigul175
Perambalur133
Ranipet133
Thanjavur130
Theni129
Tiruchirappalli119
Ramanathapuram119
Tiruppur116
Kanniyakumari110
Tenkasi103
Nagapattinam99
Karur88
Namakkal83
Erode75
Vellore71
Thiruvarur67
Pudukkottai53
Sivaganga46
Tirupathur45
Krishnagiri43
The Nilgiris17
Dharmapuri15

8,51,542 479

4,022 14

8,35,024 490

12,496 3

DistrictCases
North West5,463
Central4,817
West4,768
New Delhi3,405
North3,059
East2,472
South East2,446
South West2,391
South2,329
North East1,914
Shahdara1,580

6,39,289 197

1,335 28

6,27,044 168

10,910 1

DistrictCases
Gautam Buddha Nagar1,119
Agra933
Ghaziabad794
Meerut504
Lucknow386
Saharanpur298
Kanpur Nagar286
Moradabad252
Varanasi243
Hapur225
Aligarh215
Basti214
Amethi206
Rampur203
Jaunpur194
Firozabad190
Barabanki168
Gorakhpur166
Bulandshahr166
Siddharth Nagar159
Ghazipur159
Bijnor157
Deoria143
Azamgarh138
Sant Kabeer Nagar132
Mathura129
Ayodhya120
Muzaffarnagar117
Sambhal116
Sultanpur97
Ambedkar Nagar92
Maharajganj85
Amroha80
Rae Bareli78
Bahraich73
Kheri72
Kannauj69
Baghpat68
Kushi Nagar67
Bhadohi60
Ballia60
Gonda59
Etah52
Hardoi49
Balrampur49
Mau48
Mainpuri46
Etawah46
Hathras43
Unnao42
Jalaun41
Jhansi41
Shamli40
Chandauli38
Auraiya37
Farrukhabad36
Sitapur32
Prayagraj30
Banda27
Shahjahanpur25
Shravasti23
Budaun23
Mirzapur22
Bareilly17
Kasganj16
Pratapgarh15
Pilibhit15
Sonbhadra10
Kaushambi6
Kanpur Dehat4
Chitrakoot4
Lalitpur3
Hamirpur3
Mahoba3
Fatehpur3

6,03,527 100

2,103 43

5,92,699 143

8,725

DistrictCases
Kolkata2,777
Howrah1,435
24 Paraganas North1,031
Hooghly604
24 Paraganas South281
Maldah235
Dinajpur Uttar216
Coochbehar210
Birbhum206
Medinipur West159
Medinipur East153
Nadia139
Purba Bardhaman130
Murshidabad125
Bankura116
Darjeeling97
Jalpaiguri88
Paschim Bardhaman70
Purulia66
Dinajpur Dakshin50
Alipurduar39
Kalimpong18
Jhargram9

5,75,118 192

3,307 26

5,61,543 216

10,268 2

DistrictCases
Ganjam581
Jajapur322
Khordha238
Baleshwar190
Kendrapara164
Cuttack155
Bhadrak137
Balangir129
Puri103
Sundargarh102
Jagatsinghapur91
Nayagarh86
Mayurbhanj73
Nuapada69
Gajapati61
Dhenkanal36
Boudh34
Kendujhar34
Deogarh33
Kalahandi33
Sonepur29
Kandhamal28
Anugul26
Malkangiri20
Bargarh16
Koraput16
Sambalpur16
Jharsuguda8
Nabarangpur2
Rayagada2

3,37,191 87

704 34

3,34,571 52

1,916 1

DistrictCases
Jaipur2,177
Jodhpur1,748
Udaipur724
Bharatpur563
Kota503
Nagaur500
Ajmer379
Dungarpur374
Pali352
Jhalawar329
Bhilwara250
Sikar231
Chittorgarh188
Tonk171
Jalore164
Rajsamand140
Sirohi130
Bikaner112
Banswara91
Alwar90
Churu81
Jhunjhunu64
Dausa61
Dholpur60
Baran59
Jaisalmer53
Barmer34
Hanumangarh31
SawaiMadhopur26
Karauli17
Pratapgarh14
Ganganagar8
Bundi5

3,20,336 156

1,308 54

3,16,241 102

2,787

DistrictCases
Bilaspur100
Korba100
Mungeli87
Baloda Bazar85
Jashpur77
Janjgir-Champa56
Mahasamund54
Rajnandgaon52
Kabirdham52
Raigarh47
Raipur46
Balod41
Korea39
Durg31
Bemetara21
Kanker19
Balrampur17
Surguja14
Gariyaband10
Surajpur9
Dhamtari6
Bijapur2
Bastar2
Dantewada0
Kondagaon0
Narayanpur0
Sukma0

3,12,560 141

2,774 7

3,05,951 132

3,835 2

DistrictCases
Hyderabad2,475
Ranga Reddy183
Suryapet87
Jagitial77
Nizamabad76
MedchalMalkajgiri75
Mancherial43
YadadriBhuvanagiri40
Jogulamba Gadwal40
Vikarabad40
Nalgonda33
Warangal Urban32
Mahabubnagar30
Sangareddy26
Khammam26
Adilabad22
Nirmal21
Karimnagar17
RajannaSircilla16
Medak11
Kamareddy11
Mahabubabad10
Jayashankar Bhupalapally9
Nagarkurnool8
Kumuram Bheem Asifabad8
Jangoan8
Siddipet7
Peddapalli5
Bhadradri Kothagudem5
Warangal Rural4
Mulugu3
Narayanpet3
Wanaparthy1

2,98,923 116

1,902 49

2,95,387 165

1,634

DistrictCases
Gurugram2,950
Faridabad867
Sonipat404
Rohtak145
Palwal120
Jhajjar114
Karnal104
Hisar98
Ambala93
Panipat78
Nuh68
Bhiwani60
Rewari56
Kurukshetra55
Sirsa50
Kaithal48
Mahendragarh47
CharkiDadri43
Panchkula39
Fatehabad38
Jind38
Yamunanagar19

2,70,784 174

1,275 70

2,66,461 103

3,048 1

DistrictCases
Ahmadabad17,125
Surat2,311
Vadodara1,555
Gandhinagar410
Mahesana159
Banas Kantha147
Bhavnagar146
Rajkot135
Arvalli134
Mahisagar125
Anand107
PanchMahals107
Patan105
SabarKantha101
Kachchh99
Kheda98
Jamnagar63
Bharuch56
Botad55
Surendranagar55
Valsad47
GirSomnath45
Dohad43
Chhotaudepur37
Naysari35
Junagadh31
Narmada25
DevbhumiDwarka22
Amreli16
Porbandar11
Tapi6
Dang5
Morbi4

2,69,889 407

2,363 105

2,63,116 301

4,410 1

DistrictCases
Patna279
Bhagalpur266
Rohtas256
Khagaria253
Begusarai243
Madhubani199
Munger188
Jehanabad178
Katihar175
Darbhanga143
Samastipur139
Siwan139
PurbiChamparan138
Purnia135
Banka134
Buxar134
Nalanda123
Gopalganj123
Nawada122
Sheikhpura118
Gaya115
Kaimur (bhabua)105
Bhojpur103
Saran101
Muzaffarpur96
Saharsa88
Supaul87
Vaishali87
Madhepura82
Kishanganj75
Aurangabad75
Sitamarhi73
Lakhisarai72
Araria68
Pashchim Champaran57
Arwal52
Jamui47
Sheohar20

2,62,534 25

399 5

2,60,594 30

1,541

DistrictCases
Indore3,839
Bhopal1,880
Ujjain799
Burhanpur351
Neemuch319
Jabalpur276
East Nimar266
Sagar228
Gwalior211
Khargone196
Dewas140
Dhar132
Mandsaur112
Morena109
Bhind87
Raisen71
Barwani60
Ratlam51
Rewa39
Shajapur39
Hoshangabad37
Vidisha37
Chhatarpur35
Betul35
Rajgarh31
Dindori29
Sheopur26
Damoh26
Satna24
Anuppur22
Panna20
Tikamgarh18
Sidhi17
Narsinghpur17
Chhindwara16
Agar Malwa15
Mandla15
Shivpuri15
Jhabua14
Shandol14
Singrauli13
Ashoknagar13
Datia12
Sehore12
Umaria10
Balaghat9
Guna8
Harda4
Alirajpur3
Katni3
Seoni2
Niwari0

2,61,766 363

2,785 119

2,55,117 243

3,864 1

DistrictCases
Kamrup Metro276
Golaghat203
Nagaon143
Hojai89
Dima Hasao86
Karimganj85
Tinsukia84
Cachar80
Dibrugarh61
Hailakandi57
Lakhimpur57
Marigaon50
Dhemaji47
Kamrup42
Kokrajhar37
Dhubri30
Charaideo29
Barpeta28
Udalguri28
Sonitpur27
Jorhat24
Nalbari23
Darrang20
Sivasagar20
Goalpara19
Biswanath16
Baksa14
KarbiAnglong13
Bongaigaon12
Chirang6
West KarbiAnglong5
South SalmaraMancachar4
Majuli2

2,17,537 10

1,615 5

2,14,830 15

1,092

DistrictCases
Amritsar485
Jalandhar297
Ludhiana293
Tarn Taran163
Gurdaspur154
Hoshiarpur140
S.A.S Nagar137
Patiala132
Sangrur107
Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar (Nawanshahr)99
Pathankot86
Rupnagar (Ropar)74
Faridkot74
Sri Muktsar Sahib71
Moga65
Bathinda60
Fatehgarh Sahib57
Fazilka53
Firozepur50
Kapurthala44
Mansa31
Barnala25

1,82,176 579

4,632 196

1,71,712 376

5,832 7

DistrictCases
Anantnag395
Srinagar300
Kulgam295
Baramulla271
Shopian255
Kupwara231
Bandipora175
Udhampur155
Ramban151
Jammu138
Budgam110
Pulwama108
Kathua53
Rajouri39
Ganderbal37
Poonch35
Doda27
Reasi26
Samba25
Kishtwar10
Mirpur0
Muzaffarabad0

1,26,441 58

823 5

1,23,661 62

1,957 1

DistrictCases
East Singhbum170
Ranchi148
Hazaribagh110
Garhwa80
Ramgarh75
Koderma58
Simdega48
Dhanbad32
Gumla28
Palamu27
West Singhbhum21
SaraikelaKharsawan20
Giridih19
Bokaro16
Latehar14
Khunti10
Lohardaga8
Deoghar5
Dumka5
Pakur4
Jamtara2
Godda2
Chatra1
Sahebganj0

1,19,949 44

494 2

1,18,365 40

1,090 2

DistrictCases
Dehradun370
Nainital323
Tehri Garhwal110
Haridwar94
Udam Singh Nagar83
Almora71
Champawat45
Pithoragarh43
Chamoli36
PauriGarhwal36
Bageshwar31
Rudraprayag30
Uttar Kashi24

97,031

489 0

94,850

1,692

DistrictCases
Hamirpur117
Kangra105
Una41
Solan32
Chamba29
Bilaspur21
Mandi21
Sirmaur11
Shimla10
Kullu4
Kinnaur2
Lahaul And Spiti0

58,645 47

318 26

57,332 21

995

DistrictCases
South Goa69
North Goa57

54,986 54

606 8

53,585 45

795 1

DistrictCases
Pondicherry111
Mahe4
Karaikal2
Yanam0

39,725 8

185 12

38,872 20

668

DistrictCases
Dhalai196
Sepahijala174
Gomati74
South Tripura53
Unakoti49
West Tripura45
Khowai24
North Tripura14

33,417

39 2

32,987 2

391

DistrictCases
Churachandpur32
Kangpokpi26
Imphal West21
Thoubal18
Imphal East10
Tengnoupal9
Bishnupur7
Senapati6
Chandel5
Kamjong5
Ukhrul4
Jiribam3
Pherzawl3
Kakching2
Tamenglong2
Noney1

29,273 2

33 11

28,867 13

373

DistrictCases
Chandigarh313

21,770 51

381 24

21,037 26

352 1

DistrictCases
Changlang31
Papum Pare8
Lohit3
Namsai2
West Siang1
East Siang1
Upper Siang1
Tawang1
PakkeKessang1
West Kameng0
Upper Subansiri0
Tirap0
Siang0
Shi Yomi0
Anjaw0
Lower Subansiri0
Lower Dibang Valley0
Longding0
Leparada0
KurungKumey0
KraDaadi0
Kamle0
East Kameng0
Dibang Valley0
Lower Siang0

16,836

0 3

16,780 3

56

DistrictCases
East Khasi Hills22
West Garo Hills5
South West Garo Hills4
North Garo Hills1
West Jaintia Hills1
West Khasi Hills1
East Garo Hills0
East Jaintia Hills0
Ribhoi0
South Garo Hills0
South West Khasi Hills0

13,962 1

17 0

13,797 1

148

DistrictCases
Dimapur20
Mon8
Kohima7
Kiphire3
Tuensang3
Peren2
Phek1
Longleng0
Mokokchung0
Wokha0
Zunheboto0

12,200 1

7 3

12,102 4

91

DistrictCases
Kargil77
LehLadakh43

9,818

53 1

9,635 1

130

DistrictCases
East District3
South District3
North District0
West District0

6,145 8

46 2

5,964 6

135

DistrictCases
South Andamans33
Nicobars1
North And Middle Andaman1

5,020 2

6 2

4,952

62

DistrictCases
Kolasib11
Aizawl10
Mamit8
Lawngtlai2
Lunglei2
Saitual1
Champhai0
Hnahthial0
Khawzawl0
Saiha0
Serchhip0

4,423

20 5

4,393 5

10

DistrictCases
Dadra And Nagar Haveli20

3,406

4 0

3,400

2

DistrictCases
Lakshadweep District0

382 23

120 22

261 1

1

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