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Factbox: What’s In The Glasgow UN Climate Pact?

Glasgow UN Climate Pact: Nearly 200 nations agreed to adopt the Glasgow Climate Pact on Saturday after more than two weeks of intense negotiations

Factbox: What's In The Glasgow UN Climate Pact?
Nearly 200 nations have adopted Glasgow climate pact

Glasgow, United Kingdom: Nearly 200 nations agreed to adopt the Glasgow Climate Pact on Saturday after more than two weeks of intense negotiations, with the UK host of the talks saying the deal would keep alive international hopes of averting the worst impacts of global warming. Here are the biggest achievements of the deal:

Ratcheting Up Ambition

The agreement acknowledges that commitments made by countries so far to cut emissions of planet-heating greenhouse gases are nowhere near enough to prevent planetary warming from exceeding 1.5 degrees above pre-industrial temperatures.

To attempt to solve this, it asks governments to strengthen those targets by the end of next year, rather than every five years, as previously required.

Also Read: Meet Earthshot Prize Winner Whose Innovation Can Address Air Pollution

Failure to set, and meet, tougher emissions-cutting goals would have huge consequences. Scientists say that to go beyond a rise of 1.5C would unleash extreme sea level rise and catastrophes including crippling droughts, monstrous storms and wildfires far worse than those the world is already suffering.

I think today we can say with credibility that we’ve kept 1.5 (degrees Celsius) within reach, said Alok Sharma, the president of the COP26 summit. But its pulse is weak, and we will only survive if we keep our promises.

Targeting Fossil Fuels

The pact for the first time includes language that asks countries to reduce their reliance on coal and roll back fossil fuel subsidies, moves that would target the energy sources that scientists say are the primary drivers of manmade climate change.

The wording was contentious, though.

Just before the Glasgow deal was adopted, India requested that the deal call on countries to “phase down”, instead of “phase out” unabated coal. That minor word change triggered a lot of angst in the plenary hall, but delegations agreed to the request to save the deal.

The deal’s wording on “inefficient subsidies”, meanwhile, kept the “phase out” phrasing.

Questions remain about how to define “unabated” and “inefficient”.

Also Read: COP26: How The World’s Militaries Hide Their Huge Carbon Emissions

Payments To Poor And Vulnerable Nations

The deal made some headway on the demands of poor and vulnerable countries that wealthy countries responsible for most emissions pay up.

The deal, for example “urges developed country Parties to at least double their collective provision of climate finance for adaptation to developing country Parties from 2019 levels by 2025.”

It also, for the first time, made mention of so-called “loss and damage” in the cover section of the agreement. Loss and damage refers to the costs that some countries are already facing from climate change, and these countries have for years wanted payment to help deal with it.

Under the deal, though, developed countries have essentially just agreed to continue discussions on the topic. We will see where that leads.

Also Read: COP26: What Is Climate Change Adaptation, And Why Is It Important For Human Survival?

Rules For Global Carbon Markets

Negotiators also closed a deal setting rules for carbon markets, potentially unlocking trillions of dollars for protecting forests, building renewable energy facilities and other projects to combat climate change.

Companies as well as countries with vast forest cover had pushed for a robust deal on government-led carbon markets in Glasgow, in the hope of also legitimising the fast-growing global voluntary offset markets.

Under the accord, some measures would be implemented to ensure credits are not double-counted under national emissions targets, but bilateral trades between countries would not be taxed to help fund climate adaptation – that had been a core demand for less developed countries.

Negotiators also reached a compromise that sets a cut-off date, with credits issued before 2013 not being carried forward. That is intended to ensure too many old credits don’t flood the market and encourage purchases instead of new emissions cuts.

Also Read: Climate Change Is For Real, Here’s Why We Need To Limit Global Warming And Act Now

Side Deals

There were a number of notable side deals too. The United States and the European Union spearheaded a global methane cutting initiative in which around 100 countries have promised to reduce methane emissions by 30% from 2020 levels by 2030.

The United States and China, the world’s two biggest carbon emitters, also announced a join declaration to cooperate on climate change measures, a deal that reassured observers of Beijing’s intention to accelerate its efforts to combat global warming after a long quiet period.

Companies and investors also made a slew of voluntary pledges that would phase out gasoline-powered cars, decarbonize air travel, protect forests, and ensure more sustainable investing.

Also Read: COP26: What Is Climate Finance And Why Is It Important For Reducing Emissions

(This story has not been edited by NDTV staff and is published from a syndicated feed.)

NDTV – Dettol have been working towards a clean and healthy India since 2014 via Banega Swachh India initiative, which is helmed by Campaign Ambassador Amitabh Bachchan. The campaign aims to highlight the inter-dependency of humans and the environment, and of humans on one another with the focus on One Health, One Planet, One Future – Leaving No One Behind. It stresses on the need to take care of, and consider, everyone’s health in India – especially vulnerable communities – the LGBTQ populationindigenous people, India’s different tribes, ethnic and linguistic minorities, people with disabilities, migrants, geographically remote populations, gender and sexual minorities. In wake of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the need for WASH (WaterSanitation and Hygiene) is reaffirmed as handwashing is one of the ways to prevent Coronavirus infection and other diseases. The campaign will continue to raise awareness on the same along with focussing on the importance of nutrition and healthcare for women and children, fight malnutrition, mental wellbeing, self care, science and health, adolescent health & gender awareness. Along with the health of people, the campaign has realised the need to also take care of the health of the eco-system. Our environment is fragile due to human activity,  that is not only over-exploiting available resources, but also generating immense pollution as a result of using and extracting those resources. The imbalance has also led to immense biodiversity loss that has caused one of the biggest threats to human survival – climate change. It has now been described as a “code red for humanity.” The campaign will continue to cover issues like air pollutionwaste managementplastic banmanual scavenging and sanitation workers and menstrual hygiene. Banega Swasth India will also be taking forward the dream of Swasth Bharat, the campaign feels that only a Swachh or clean India where toilets are used and open defecation free (ODF) status achieved as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2014, can eradicate diseases like diahorrea and the country can become a Swasth or healthy India.

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