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Glasgow Climate Pact Agreed At COP26 Undermines ‘Climate Justice’, Say Experts

Climate change affects different people differently and is likely to create more inequity, say experts

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Glasgow Climate Pact Agreed At COP26 Undermines ‘Climate Justice’, Say Experts
According to Sunita Narain, Director General, Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), a New Delhi based think tank, about 70 per cent of the world’s population needs access to carbon space for development; they cannot be told not to develop
  • Climate justice is the fair treatment of all people in climate action: UNEP
  • Climate justice has to be the pre requisite of climate action: Experts
  • COP26 failed at climate justice: CSE

New Delhi: Nearly 200 nations agreed to adopt the ‘Glasgow Climate Pact’ on November 12, after more than two weeks of discussions and negotiations at the 26th Conference of Parties (COP26) climate summit at Glasgow, UK. The aim was to finalise the Paris Agreement rule book in order to avert the impacts of global warming and to ask governments to strengthen their climate targets to prevent the warming of the planet to exceed 1.5 degree Celsius above pre-industrial levels. According to experts, while the Glasgow Climate Pact made some progress in terms of emissions-cutting goals, it has completely undermined the concept of climate justice.

Also Read: COP26: What Is Climate Change Adaptation, And Why Is It Important For Human Survival?

What Is Climate Justice?

Climate justice is the fair treatment of all people in the creation of policies and implementation of actions that address climate change, according to the United Nations Environment Programme.

D. Raghunandan, Scientist and member, Delhi Science Forum said that when cyclones, floods or droughts strike, too often those hit hardest are poor and marginalised communities who bear little responsibility for global warming and climate change. He explained that climate justice has emerged from the idea that historical responsibility for climate change lies with wealthy and powerful people – and yet it disproportionately impacts the poorest and most vulnerable. He said,

This concept of ‘climate justice’ is reshaping of climate action from efforts to only cut emissions into an approach that also addresses human rights and inequality. It is the industrialised, developed nations who gathered wealth by burning fossil fuels, but it is the socially, economically, the environmentally vulnerable people like tribals, poor, farmers, fishing communities, children, people with disabilities who face the brunt of the worst impacts of extreme weather events caused by climate change. Global warming is also an ethical and political issue, and not just a purely environmental issue and this is what climate justice is about.

Climate Justice: What Happened At COP26?

According to Sunita Narain, Director General, Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), a New Delhi based think tank, about 70 per cent of the world’s population needs access to carbon space for development; they cannot be told not to develop.

However, poor nations with miniscule per capita carbon footprint are asked to constrain their developmental health in trying to abide by the Paris Agreement. COP26 was supposed to confront this inequity and ensure that it is addressed while securing low-carbon pathways for the world, she said.

COP26, failed at climate justice, according to CSE experts. The following happened at COP26, according to CSE:

– Civil society and activists were locked out of the discussions.

– Major developed countries who are big polluters did not commit to domestic fossil fuel phase-out, only to halt funding it internationally.

– An upwardly increasing climate finance goal was not agreed upon. The final text acknowledges the needs of developing countries for climate finance and sets out a process to deliver on those needs.

– Finance for ‘Loss and Damages’, which refers to the cost of destruction caused by extreme weather events, was not announced. The COP just decided to establish a dialogue between parties, stakeholders and relevant organisations to support efforts to avert, minimise and address loss and damage associated with climate change.

– The pact has no mention of historical emissions. It just “notes” the “importance for some of the concept of ‘climate justice’, when taking action to address climate change”.

Also Read: COP26: How The World’s Militaries Hide Their Huge Carbon Emissions

Ms Narain asserted that dismissing climate justice as a concept that is important only for “some” is Glasgow Climate Pact’s fatal flaw. She said that the parties to the pact have failed to understand that climate justice is the pre-requisite for effective climate action- it has to be the bedrock of action.

The Pact’s fundamental and fatal flaw is in the very first page – where it says, rather dismissively, that it notes the importance ‘for some’ of the concept of climate justice. We cannot erase the fact that certain countries – the United States, European Union, UK, Canada, Australia, Japan and Russia and joined now by China – have consumed roughly 70 per cent of the carbon budget, the space in the atmosphere that is available to keep the world below the 1.5 degree Celsius temperature rise. The challenge is that the world has run out of carbon budget, but some 70 per cent of the world’s people still need the right to development. As these countries grow, they will add emissions and take the world to catastrophic levels of temperature rise. It is for this reason, climate justice is not an add-on concept for some, but the pre-requisite for an effective and ambitious agreement. This lack of understanding is at the core of the problem.

Mr Raghunandan stressed that neglecting ‘Climate Justice’ in global accord, will make vulnerable communities facing a high risk of climate change, like the poor with lower means to deal with damages, even more vulnerable to hardships, hunger and displacement.

Climate justice is a matter of human rights. It is important because, climate change will affect different people and places differently, and so is likely to increase inequalities within and across nations, creating even more injustice. COP26 should have addressed this because climate change is not only the biggest public health threat but also a danger to the existence of humanity.

Also Read: Climate Change Is For Real, Here’s Why We Need To Limit Global Warming And Act Now

NDTV – Dettol have been working towards a clean and healthy India since 2014 via Banega Swachh India initiative, which is helmed by Campaign Ambassador Amitabh Bachchan. The campaign aims to highlight the inter-dependency of humans and the environment, and of humans on one another with the focus on One Health, One Planet, One Future – Leaving No One Behind. It stresses on the need to take care of, and consider, everyone’s health in India – especially vulnerable communities – the LGBTQ populationindigenous people, India’s different tribes, ethnic and linguistic minorities, people with disabilities, migrants, geographically remote populations, gender and sexual minorities. In wake of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the need for WASH (WaterSanitation and Hygiene) is reaffirmed as handwashing is one of the ways to prevent Coronavirus infection and other diseases. The campaign will continue to raise awareness on the same along with focussing on the importance of nutrition and healthcare for women and children, fight malnutrition, mental wellbeing, self care, science and health, adolescent health & gender awareness. Along with the health of people, the campaign has realised the need to also take care of the health of the eco-system. Our environment is fragile due to human activity,  that is not only over-exploiting available resources, but also generating immense pollution as a result of using and extracting those resources. The imbalance has also led to immense biodiversity loss that has caused one of the biggest threats to human survival – climate change. It has now been described as a “code red for humanity.” The campaign will continue to cover issues like air pollutionwaste managementplastic banmanual scavenging and sanitation workers and menstrual hygiene. Banega Swasth India will also be taking forward the dream of Swasth Bharat, the campaign feels that only a Swachh or clean India where toilets are used and open defecation free (ODF) status achieved as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2014, can eradicate diseases like diahorrea and the country can become a Swasth or healthy India.


Coronavirus has spread to 196 countries. The total confirmed cases worldwide are 26,27,61,966 and 52,15,195 have died; 22,35,18,265 are active cases and 3,40,28,506 have recovered as on December 1, 2021 at 3:56 am.


3,45,96,776 8,954Cases
3,40,28,506 10,207Recovered
4,69,247 267Deaths
In India, there are 3,45,96,776 confirmed cases including 4,69,247 deaths. The number of active cases is 99,023 and 3,40,28,506 have recovered as on December 1, 2021 at 2:30 am.

State Details

State Cases Active Recovered Deaths

66,35,658 678

11,226 299

64,83,435 942

1,40,997 35


51,41,814 4,723

44,314 824

50,57,368 5,370

40,132 177


29,96,148 291

6,445 462

29,51,492 745

38,211 8

Tamil Nadu

27,26,917 720

8,244 47

26,82,192 758

36,481 9

Andhra Pradesh

20,72,909 184

2,149 47

20,56,318 134

14,442 3

Uttar Pradesh

17,10,399 12

89 3

16,87,399 8

22,911 1

West Bengal

16,16,083 705

7,731 2

15,88,866 694

19,486 13


14,40,934 34

287 2

14,15,549 32



10,49,108 228

2,188 23

10,38,509 203

8,411 2


10,06,813 34

318 0

9,92,902 34



9,54,785 15

193 6

9,45,637 9



8,27,475 40

275 13

8,17,108 27


Madhya Pradesh

7,93,170 20

119 7

7,82,523 27



7,71,709 17

163 2

7,61,492 19



7,26,223 4

36 3

7,16,524 7



6,75,994 196

3,591 10

6,68,411 184

3,992 2


6,16,852 144

2,625 30

6,08,124 109

6,103 5


6,03,279 21

325 4

5,86,352 22

16,602 3


3,49,244 12

98 3

3,44,006 9



3,44,255 28

141 9

3,36,706 19


Jammu And Kashmir

3,36,852 171

1,625 1

3,30,751 172


Himachal Pradesh

2,27,195 102

834 10

2,22,513 91

3,848 1


1,78,928 38

284 8

1,75,260 30



1,35,175 365

3,751 54

1,30,927 415

497 4


1,28,924 31

284 12

1,26,768 43



1,25,205 36

649 6

1,22,579 40

1,977 2


84,805 14

81 3

83,900 10

824 1


84,480 19

294 9

82,713 9

1,473 1


65,465 9

65 7

64,580 2


Arunachal Pradesh

55,276 3

35 0

54,961 3



32,242 9

124 3

31,715 6



32,122 13

133 7

31,293 20



21,578 38

276 26

21,088 12


Dadra And Nagar Haveli


1 0





24 0



Andaman And Nicobar Islands


6 2

7,548 2


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