Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Is T-Cell Immunity And How Does It Provide Defense Against COVID-19?

Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Is T-Cell Immunity And How Does It Provide Defense Against COVID-19?

According to experts, T-cells play an essential role in supporting immune system and are responsible for defending the body against pathogens like the SARS-CoV-2 from re-invading, by identifying and killing the infected cells which suggest that these may also provide guard to COVID-19 survivor from the second attack of the virus
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Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Is T-Cell Immunity And How Does It Provide Defense Against COVID-19?While antibodies against coronavirus among COVID-19 survivors may disappear quickly, doctors say that the immunity provided by T-cells is long lasting
Highlights
  • When a pathogen enters the body, the immune system mobilises a response
  • Vitamin A and B9 influence the production and activity of T-cells: Expert
  • Acute COVID-19 causes T-cell exhaustion, seen among ICU patients: Doctors

New Delhi: Can a person catch COVID-19 twice? According to experts, there have been some incidences of people losing antibodies developed against the virus during the first infection in a short span of time and getting infected again. While the researchers across the globe are still conducting studies to understand more about the novel coronavirus Sars-CoV-2, its impact on the body and the response of human body against it, they have found that immunity mediated by T-Cells also called as T-lymphocytes can provide protection from the second attack of the virus. NDTV reached out to medical experts to learn about T-Cell immunity and how it provides defense against COVID-19.

Also Read: Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Is Convalescent Plasma Therapy And How Effective Is It In Treating COVID-19 Patients?

T-Cell is a type of White Blood Cell and is an essential part of the immune system of a human body. According to Dr. Smita Kulshreshtha, lead pathologist at Final Diagnosis Laboratory, a private lab in Agra, when pathogen enters the body, the immune system mobilizes a series of cells and proteins that forms antibodies to defeat the virus, however, when the viral load is high, it calls in fighter cells for back up which are called as T-Cells. These cells have the ability to recognize the unique biological/chemical structures or antigen being carried by the pathogen and kill them, because of which these cells are also called memory T- Cells. Further explaining the immunity functions of T-Cells, Dr. Kulshreshtha said,

Our immune system is divided into two parts- Humoral antibody immunity and T-Cell dependent immunity. The Humoral antibody immunity is that aspect of immunity where antibodies are produced to fight specific antigen which is a harmful substance or molecules carried by microorganisms like viruses, bacterium, fungi or works collectively known as pathogen. The antibodies released by Humoral antibody immunity system react with the antigen and kill it. The second aspect of our immune system is T-Cell immunity which is dependent on T-Cell. These cells are trained to recognize specific antigens to which they will trigger a faster and stronger immune response if they have encountered the same or similar antigen before. T-Cells cause the production of small proteins called cytokines which is a signaling machinery of the immune system that mediate and regulate immunity and the inflammation caused by antigen in the body.

She further said that since people have been exposed to various kinds of influenza inducing viruses including some previously recognised coronaviruses, the T-Cell are able to recognise the pathogen and are able to activate a reponse to it, thus providing a defence against viruses. She added that T-Cell immunity is one of the reasons for younger children having better immunity against COVID-19 than the senior citizens. She said,

T-Cell immunity among children is higher because children are prone to getting exposed to influenza causing viruses and other infections so their T-Cells are more alert and activated in recognizing the pathogen on re-encounter. However, over the time, as one gets older, the exposure to infection decreases and also their immune system becomes weak. Therefore, we see that children are not as affected by COVID-19 as the senior citizens.

Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Is T-Cell Immunity And How Does It Provide Defense Against COVID-19?
What is a T-Cell?

While explaining about the concept of T-Cell immunity and how it can be a saviour in the fight against the COVID-19, Dr Rajesh Malhotra, Chief, COVID-19 facility, Trauma Center, AIIMS (All India Institute Of Medical Science) said that this immunity is what saving most survivors from getting the infection again. He said,

T- cell immunity is what keeping us going. Till now, there have not been many incidents of reinfections even though it has been seen that antibodies against coronavirus are going down in some patients as early as within one month. It is the T-cells immunity where I am putting my hopes on, because there are responding to the virus that they encountered earlier. Currently, there are some vaccines that are being developed with an aim to provide dual immunity- by injecting antibodies and T-cells as well.

Also Read: Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Are The Long-Term Impacts Of COVID-19 On Human Body And The Recovery Process?

Low Count Of T-Cells Can Cause Further Complications Among COVID-19 Patients: Expert

According to Dr. Monica Mahajan, Director Medical, Max Super Speciality Hospital, Saket, T-cells are responsible for generating an immune response to a foreign pathogen including a virus like SARS-CoV-2. She said,

There are two type of T-Cells. First, which directly kill the virus infected cells and ensure a strong immune response is generated by signaling system called cytokines. The other T-Cells the ‘helper’ T-cells (called Tn cells). These work as helper to another group of cells called B-Cells and fight a disease by producing antibodies. Majority of the COVID-19 patients have a good Immune response by increase activation of T-Cells. It produces antibodies that neutralizes the virus ensures recovery and possibly protection against subsequent episodes of COVID-19.

However, Dr. Mahajan also highlights that low T-Cells count can cause a phenomenon called cytokine storm in which an overreaction of the immune system take place and it loses the ability to identify the good cells from virus affected or bad cells and lead to critical cases of COVID-19, multiple organ failure and even death. She said,

Among patients with severe COVID -19, especially the senior citizens or those who have weak immunity due to an underlying condition like hypertension, obesity, heart prblems, diabetes or any other illness, there is a lower T-Cell count. In this case, there is an increase in the bad cytokine proteins which causes a ‘cytokine storm’. This result in all the complications including severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or respiratory failure. A low T-Cell count has been correlated with a higher concentration of cytokines.

She further said that a low T-Cell count can be caused due to a more prolonged COVID-19 infection leading to T-Cell exhaustion in severe cases of COVID-19, as observed in patients in ICU (Intensive Care Unit).

Dr. Mahajan also said that a vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 will have to potentially activate the T-Cells along with stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies against the virus. She said that if an individual does not develop a robust T-Cell specific response to the virus, the vaccine may not offer long term protection.

Also Read: Coronavirus Explainer: 20 COVID-19 Related Terms And What These Mean

A Nutrient Rich Diet Can Fuel T-Cell In Favour Of Body’s Immune System

In order to fuel the T-Cells and strengthen body’s immunity against COVID-19 and other such infections, Dr. Shweta Khandelwal, Nutrition Expert, PHFI (Public Health Foundation of India) said that it is advisable to follow a diet rich in nutrients. She said,

T-Cells are highly influenced by nutrient uptake from their environment, and changes in overall nutritional status (both under- and over-nutrition) can result in altered T-Cell efficiency. The lack of protective immunity as seen in malnutrition, can be easily traced back to the developmental defects associated with inadequate nutrients and the lack of nutritional signals such as leptin, a hormone, that are critical for fueling immune cell production and function. Leptin can influence immune cell number and function through its effects on cellular metabolism. It has been identified as a key regulator of both protective immunity and autoimmunity in the context of nutritional disorders.

She further added that to fuel T-Cell’s efficiency to act in the favour of body’s immunity, there is a need to increase the intake of nutrients, including glucose as well as amino acids found in legumes, beans, dairy, eggs and others. She asserted that Vitamins–particularly Vitamin A found in yellow vegetables and fruits like Mango and Papaya and B9 found in dark green leafy vegetables such as spinach, affect T-Cells’ regulatory functions. Foods high in poly-unsaturated fatty acids particularly omega-3 fatty acids such as chia seeds, walnuts, brussels sprouts, and avocados play an important role suppressing allergic inflammation can positively affect immune system, she said. Dr. Khandelwal stressed on following a RAINBOW diet to boost immunity naturally. She said,

To easily understand and remember about having a balanced diet, I would suggest one to follow RAINBOW: R- roughage which is fibre for better gut health, A- Antioxidants like Vitamins and minerals from coloured fruits and vegetables, I- Immunity boosting ingredients like spices, nuts, herbs, N- Natural foods, minimise the easily available fast food, B- Lots of healthy non sugary beverages like water, buttermilk, lemon water, herbal tea among others, O- Omega 3 fats like in mustard oil, flax seeds, chia seeds and walnuts, W- Wholegrains and pulses and non-refined flours.

Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Is T-Cell Immunity And How Does It Provide Defense Against COVID-19?
Follow RAINBOW diet to boost immunity, says Dr. Shweta Khandelwal, Nutrition Expert, PHFI

According to experts, currently, there is still a lot unknown about the immune responses to SARS-CoV-2. They say that it is not known yet about how much immunity to expect once someone is infected with the virus and how long that immunity may last since the virus has been known only for past eight months. However, they say that there is some hope regarding cellular immunity dependent on T-Cells in the absence of a durable antibody response.

Also Read: Coronavirus Outbreak Explained: What Is A Cytokine Storm And How Is It Fuelling COVID-19? Experts Answer

NDTV – Dettol Banega Swasth India campaign is an extension of the five-year-old Banega Swachh India initiative helmed by Campaign Ambassador Amitabh Bachchan. It aims to spread awareness about critical health issues facing the country. In wake of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the need for WASH (WaterSanitation and Hygiene) is reaffirmed as handwashing is one of the ways to prevent Coronavirus infection and other diseases. The campaign highlights the importance of nutrition and healthcare for women and children to prevent maternal and child mortality, fight malnutrition, stunting, wasting, anaemia and disease prevention through vaccines. Importance of programmes like Public Distribution System (PDS), Mid-day Meal Scheme, POSHAN Abhiyan and the role of Aganwadis and ASHA workers are also covered. Only a Swachh or clean India where toilets are used and open defecation free (ODF) status achieved as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2014, can eradicate diseases like diahorrea and become a Swasth or healthy India. The campaign will continue to cover issues like air pollutionwaste managementplastic banmanual scavenging and sanitation workers and menstrual hygiene

World

1,98,54,583Cases
70,07,751Active
1,21,15,736Recovered
7,31,096Deaths
Coronavirus has spread to 188 countries. The total confirmed cases worldwide are 1,98,54,583 and 7,31,096 have died; 70,07,751 are active cases and 1,21,15,736 have recovered as on August 10, 2020 at 4:12 am.

India

22,15,074 62064Cases
6,34,945 6198Active
15,35,743 54859Recovered
44,386 1007Deaths
In India, there are 22,15,074 confirmed cases including 44,386 deaths. The number of active cases is 6,34,945 and 15,35,743 have recovered as on August 10, 2020 at 2:30 am.

State & District Details

State Cases Active Recovered Deaths
DistrictCases
Akola757
Aurangabad1974
Dhule228
Jalgaon1039
Mumbai45478
Mumbai Suburban5363
Nagpur692
Nashik1575
Palghar1421
Pune9920
Satara629
Solapur1291
Thane13660
Yavatmal150
Ahmednagar190
Amravati291
Beed54
Bhandara41
Buldhana88
Chandrapur32
Hingoli208
Jalna201
Kolhapur646
Latur139
Nanded176
Nandurbar42
Parbhani78
Raigad1462
Ratnagiri350
Sangli145
Gadchiroli42
gondia69
Osmanabad125
Sindhudurg114
Wardha11
Washim13

515332 12248

145865

351710 13348

17757 390

DistrictCases
Chittoor319
Guntur511
Krishna557
Kurnool795
Sri Potti Sriramulu Nell*296
Anantapur428
East Godavari356
Prakasam104
Srikakulam183
Visakhapatnam103
West Godavari199
Y.S.R.205
Vizianagaram23

227860 10820

87112 1626

138712 9097

2036 97

DistrictCases
Bengaluru Rural40
Bengaluru Urban529
Mysuru107
Bagalkote103
Ballari60
Belagavi337
Bidar219
Chikkaballapura149
Dakshina Kannada179
Dharwad61
Gadag45
Kalaburagi669
Mandya346
Tumakuru36
Uttara Kannada95
Vijayapura201
Chamarajanagara0
Chikkamagaluru19
Chitradurga14
Davangere204
Hassan205
Haveri24
Kodagu4
Kolar29
Koppal5
Raichur369
Ramanagara3
Shivamogga67
Udupi1176
Yadgir538

178087 5985

80981 1208

93908 4670

3198 107

DistrictCases
North Goa57
South Goa69

8712 506

2642 310

5995 193

75 3

DistrictCases
Chengalpattu1314
Chennai23324
Kanchipuram503
Madurai322
Namakkal83
Ranipet133
Thanjavur130
Thiruvallur774
Thiruvarur67
Tiruppur116
Vellore71
Virudhunagar185
Ariyalur444
Coimbatore188
Cuddalore477
Dharmapuri15
Dindigul175
Erode75
Kallakurichi324
Kanniyakumari110
Karur88
Nagapattinam99
Perambalur133
Pudukkottai53
Ramanathapuram119
Salem258
Sivaganga46
Tenkasi103
The Nilgiris17
Theni129
Tiruchirappalli119
Tirunelveli433
Tirupathur45
Tiruvannamalai496
Tuticorin333
Villupuram509
Krishnagiri43

296901 5994

53336

238638 6020

4927 119

DistrictCases
Kannur357
Kottayam73
Alappuzha76
Idukki40
Kasaragod333
Kollam118
Kozhikode90
Malappuram119
Palakkad224
Pathanamthitta98
Thiruvananthapuram104
Thrissur106
Ernakulam60
Wayanad36

34331 1211

12391 239

21832 970

108 2

DistrictCases
Raipur46
Korba100
Balod41
Baloda Bazar85
Balrampur17
Bastar2
Bemetara21
Bijapur2
Bilaspur100
Dantewada0
Dhamtari6
Durg31
Gariyaband10
Janjgir-Champa56
Jashpur77
Kabirdham52
Kanker19
Kondagaon0
Korea39
Mahasamund54
Mungeli87
Narayanpur0
Raigarh47
Rajnandgaon52
Sukma0
Surajpur9
Surguja14

12148 405

3243 171

8809 227

96 7

DistrictCases
Hyderabad2475
MedchalMalkajgiri75
Ranga Reddy183
Suryapet87
Vikarabad40
Warangal Urban32
Adilabad22
Jagitial77
Jangoan8
Jayashankar Bhupalapally9
Jogulamba Gadwal40
Kamareddy11
Karimnagar17
Khammam26
Kumuram Bheem Asifabad8
Mahabubnagar30
Mancherial43
Medak11
Nalgonda33
Narayanpet3
Nirmal21
Nizamabad76
RajannaSircilla16
Sangareddy26
Bhadradri Kothagudem5
Mahabubabad10
Mulugu3
Nagarkurnool8
Peddapalli5
Siddipet7
Wanaparthy1
Warangal Rural4
YadadriBhuvanagiri40

80751 1256

22528

57586 1587

637 10

DistrictCases
Baleshwar190
Bhadrak137
Jajapur322
Dhenkanal36
Kalahandi33
Kendrapara164
Khordha238
Koraput16
Sundargarh102
Anugul26
Balangir129
Bargarh16
Boudh34
Cuttack155
Deogarh33
Gajapati61
Ganjam581
Jagatsinghapur91
Jharsuguda8
Kandhamal28
Kendujhar34
Malkangiri20
Mayurbhanj73
Nabarangpur2
Nayagarh86
Nuapada69
Puri103
Rayagada2
Sambalpur16
Sonepur29

45927 1734

13870 178

31785 1543

272 13

DistrictCases
Barwani60
Bhopal1880
Dewas140
Dhar132
East Nimar266
Gwalior211
Indore3839
Jabalpur276
Ujjain799
Agar Malwa15
Alirajpur3
Betul35
Burhanpur351
Chhindwara16
Dindori29
Harda4
Hoshangabad37
Khargone196
Mandsaur112
Morena109
Raisen71
Ratlam51
Sagar228
Shajapur39
Shandol14
Sheopur26
Tikamgarh18
Vidisha37
Anuppur22
Ashoknagar13
Balaghat9
Bhind87
Chhatarpur35
Damoh26
Datia12
Guna8
Jhabua14
Katni3
Mandla15
Narsinghpur17
Neemuch319
Niwari0
Panna20
Rajgarh31
Rewa39
Satna24
Sehore12
Seoni2
Shivpuri15
Sidhi17
Singrauli13
Umaria10

39025 868

9009 182

29020 667

996 19

DistrictCases
Ahmadabad17125
Anand107
Arvalli134
Banas Kantha147
Bhavnagar146
Gandhinagar410
PanchMahals107
Surat2311
Vadodara1555
Bharuch56
Botad55
Chhotaudepur37
Dang5
Dohad43
GirSomnath45
Jamnagar63
Kachchh99
Kheda98
Mahesana159
Mahisagar125
Narmada25
Naysari35
Patan105
Rajkot135
SabarKantha101
Surendranagar55
Tapi6
Valsad47
Amreli16
DevbhumiDwarka22
Junagadh31
Morbi4
Porbandar11

70965 1096

14147

54166 1311

2652 24

DistrictCases
Ajmer379
Banswara91
Bharatpur563
Jaipur2177
Jhalawar329
Jodhpur1748
Kota503
Nagaur500
Alwar90
Barmer34
Bhilwara250
Bikaner112
Chittorgarh188
Churu81
Dausa61
Dholpur60
Dungarpur374
Hanumangarh31
Jaisalmer53
Jhunjhunu64
Karauli17
Pali352
Rajsamand140
SawaiMadhopur26
Sikar231
Tonk171
Udaipur724
Baran59
Bundi5
Ganganagar8
Jalore164
Pratapgarh14
Sirohi130

52497 1169

13473 86

38235 1072

789 11

DistrictCases
Faridabad867
Sonipat404
Ambala93
Bhiwani60
CharkiDadri43
Fatehabad38
Gurugram2950
Hisar98
Jhajjar114
Jind38
Kaithal48
Karnal104
Kurukshetra55
Nuh68
Palwal120
Panchkula39
Panipat78
Rohtak145
Sirsa50
Yamunanagar19
Mahendragarh47
Rewari56

41635 792

6371 33

34781 750

483 9

DistrictCases
Agra933
Aligarh215
Amroha80
Bareilly17
Bijnor157
Bulandshahr166
Firozabad190
Gautam Buddha Nagar1119
Kanpur Nagar286
Lucknow386
Mathura129
Meerut504
Moradabad252
Muzaffarnagar117
Rae Bareli78
Rampur203
Saharanpur298
Sant Kabeer Nagar132
Varanasi243
Auraiya37
Ayodhya120
Azamgarh138
Baghpat68
Bahraich73
Balrampur49
Banda27
Basti214
Bhadohi60
Budaun23
Etah52
Etawah46
Ghaziabad794
Ghazipur159
Gonda59
Gorakhpur166
Hapur225
Hardoi49
Jalaun41
Jaunpur194
Jhansi41
Kannauj69
Kasganj16
Kaushambi6
Mainpuri46
Mau48
Mirzapur22
Pilibhit15
Pratapgarh15
Prayagraj30
Sambhal116
Shamli40
Shravasti23
Sitapur32
Sultanpur97
Unnao42
Ambedkar Nagar92
Amethi206
Ballia60
Barabanki168
Chandauli38
Chitrakoot4
Deoria143
Farrukhabad36
Fatehpur3
Hamirpur3
Hathras43
Kanpur Dehat4
Kheri72
Kushi Nagar67
Lalitpur3
Maharajganj85
Mahoba3
Shahjahanpur25
Siddharth Nagar159
Sonbhadra10

122609 4571

47890 1713

72650 2817

2069 41

DistrictCases
Central4817
East2472
New Delhi3405
North3059
North East1914
North West5463
Shahdara1580
South2329
South East2446
South West2391
West4768

145427 1300

10729 62

130587 1225

4111 13

DistrictCases
Dhubri30
Goalpara19
Marigaon50
Baksa14
Barpeta28
Biswanath16
Bongaigaon12
Cachar80
Charaideo29
Chirang6
Darrang20
Dhemaji47
Dibrugarh61
Dima Hasao86
Golaghat203
Hailakandi57
Hojai89
Jorhat24
Kamrup42
Kamrup Metro276
KarbiAnglong13
Karimganj85
Kokrajhar37
Lakhimpur57
Majuli2
Nagaon143
Nalbari23
Sivasagar20
Sonitpur27
South SalmaraMancachar4
Tinsukia84
Udalguri28
West KarbiAnglong5

58837 1123

16367

42325 1734

145 5

DistrictCases
East District3
North District0
South District3
West District0

866 6

371

494 24

1

DistrictCases
Buxar134
Gaya115
Munger188
Patna279
Rohtas256
Arwal52
Aurangabad75
Banka134
Begusarai243
Bhagalpur266
Bhojpur103
Darbhanga143
Gopalganj123
Jehanabad178
Kaimur (bhabua)105
Lakhisarai72
Madhepura82
Madhubani199
Nalanda123
Nawada122
PurbiChamparan138
Purnia135
Saran101
Siwan139
Vaishali87
Araria68
Jamui47
Katihar175
Khagaria253
Kishanganj75
Muzaffarpur96
Pashchim Champaran57
Saharsa88
Samastipur139
Sheikhpura118
Sheohar20
Sitamarhi73
Supaul87

79451 4157

27906 1237

51158 2915

387 5

DistrictCases
24 Paraganas North1031
24 Paraganas South281
Darjeeling97
Howrah1435
Jalpaiguri88
Kalimpong18
Kolkata2777
Maldah235
Medinipur East153
Medinipur West159
Hooghly604
Murshidabad125
Nadia139
Paschim Bardhaman70
Purba Bardhaman130
Alipurduar39
Bankura116
Birbhum206
Coochbehar210
Dinajpur Dakshin50
Dinajpur Uttar216
Jhargram9
Purulia66

95554 2939

26375 889

67120 1996

2059 54

DistrictCases
South Andamans33
Nicobars1
North And Middle Andaman1

1490 139

822

648 148

20

DistrictCases
Pondicherry111
Karaikal2
Mahe4
Yanam0

5382 259

2094 105

3201 147

87 7

DistrictCases
Anjaw0
Changlang31
Dibang Valley0
East Kameng0
East Siang1
Kamle0
KraDaadi0
KurungKumey0
Leparada0
Lohit3
Longding0
Lower Dibang Valley0
Lower Siang0
Lower Subansiri0
Namsai2
PakkeKessang1
Papum Pare8
Shi Yomi0
Siang0
Tawang1
Tirap0
Upper Siang1
Upper Subansiri0
West Kameng0
West Siang1

2155 38

670

1482 52

3

DistrictCases
Dimapur20
Kiphire3
Kohima7
Longleng0
Mokokchung0
Mon8
Peren2
Phek1
Tuensang3
Wokha0
Zunheboto0

2781 93

1869 84

904 8

8 1

DistrictCases
Dadra And Nagar Haveli20

1564 108

441 24

1121 84

2

DistrictCases
Ranchi148
Bokaro16
Deoghar5
Dhanbad32
Garhwa80
Giridih19
Hazaribagh110
Jamtara2
Koderma58
Simdega48
Chatra1
Dumka5
East Singhbum170
Godda2
Gumla28
Khunti10
Latehar14
Lohardaga8
Pakur4
Palamu27
Ramgarh75
Sahebganj0
SaraikelaKharsawan20
West Singhbhum21

18138 1044

9123 307

8838 715

177 22

DistrictCases
Gomati74
North Tripura14
Dhalai196
Khowai24
Sepahijala174
South Tripura53
Unakoti49
West Tripura45

6208 62

1723

4443 267

42 1

DistrictCases
Kargil77
LehLadakh43

1688 49

457 41

1222 8

9

DistrictCases
Anantnag395
Bandipora175
Shopian255
Srinagar300
Baramulla271
Budgam110
Ganderbal37
Jammu138
Kathua53
Kulgam295
Kupwara231
Rajouri39
Ramban151
Reasi26
Samba25
Udhampur155
Mirpur0
Muzaffarabad0
Doda27
Kishtwar10
Poonch35
Pulwama108

24897 507

7422 158

17003 336

472 13

DistrictCases
Chamba29
Hamirpur117
Kangra105
Sirmaur11
Solan32
Una41
Bilaspur21
Kinnaur2
Kullu4
Lahaul And Spiti0
Mandi21
Shimla10

3371 107

1175 6

2181 100

15 1

DistrictCases
Jalandhar297
Ludhiana293
Patiala132
Amritsar485
Barnala25
Faridkot74
Firozepur50
Gurdaspur154
Hoshiarpur140
Kapurthala44
Mansa31
Moga65
Pathankot86
S.A.S Nagar137
Sangrur107
Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar (Nawanshahr)99
Sri Muktsar Sahib71
Tarn Taran163
Bathinda60
Fatehgarh Sahib57
Fazilka53
Rupnagar (Ropar)74

23903 975

7998 512

15319 439

586 24

DistrictCases
Haridwar94
Dehradun370
Nainital323
Almora71
Bageshwar31
Chamoli36
Champawat45
PauriGarhwal36
Pithoragarh43
Rudraprayag30
Tehri Garhwal110
Udam Singh Nagar83
Uttar Kashi24

9632 230

3373 51

6134 171

125 8

DistrictCases
Bishnupur7
Chandel5
Churachandpur32
Imphal East10
Imphal West21
Jiribam3
Kakching2
Kamjong5
Kangpokpi26
Noney1
Pherzawl3
Senapati6
Tamenglong2
Tengnoupal9
Thoubal18
Ukhrul4

3753 118

1698 1

2044 117

11

DistrictCases
Chandigarh313

1515 89

586 56

904 32

25 1

DistrictCases
East Khasi Hills22
East Garo Hills0
East Jaintia Hills0
North Garo Hills1
Ribhoi0
South Garo Hills0
South West Garo Hills4
South West Khasi Hills0
West Garo Hills5
West Jaintia Hills1
West Khasi Hills1

1062 39

566

490 67

6

DistrictCases
Aizawl10
Champhai0
Hnahthial0
Khawzawl0
Kolasib11
Lawngtlai2
Lunglei2
Mamit8
Saiha0
Saitual1
Serchhip0

620 27

322 25

298 2

0

DistrictCases
Lakshadweep District0

0

0

0

0

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